April 25, 2011
[caption id="attachment_2452" align="alignnone" width="480" caption="Uncontacted tribe in Amazon: Photo by Gleison Miranda/FUNAI."][/caption]
A Imitrex For Sale, s we walked through the forest, searching for açaí berries, Amiri Awá named the trees we passed, "Tatajuba, inajá, copaíba." He spoke quietly, so as not to scare away any animals which might be a suitable catch to feed his family. Every so often he paused to expertly mimic an animal sound, Get Imitrex, to communicate with his brother who had sped ahead of us and was by now out of sight amongst the thick rainforest foliage.
Amiri and his family make regular trips into the forest, their grass-woven bags on their backs, to collect açaí and other fruits, buy Imitrex online cod, and to search for game to hunt. Real brand Imitrex online, They are Indians of the Awá tribe, one of only two nomadic hunter gatherer tribes remaining in Brazil today.
“Our land gives us all we need,” Chiperenjia Awá said one evening as he helped his father decorate his body with feathers of the urubu rei or king vulture, Imitrex without prescription, for a prayer and dance ritual that would last until dawn.
The Awá’s forest home in Maranhão state in the eastern Brazilian Amazon provides the Indians with food, Generic Imitrex, shelter, and spiritual well-being. But during the past four decades they have seen a huge wave of cattle ranchers, fast shipping Imitrex, settlers and illegal loggers invading their land. Rx free Imitrex, Almost every Awá family group has suffered brutal massacres in which many Awá were killed, and now their very existence is at risk as their forest is being cut down at an alarmingly fast pace.
The Awá territory was the indigenous area in the Amazon which suffered most deforestation in 2009. More than 30% of the Awá’s forest has already been cut down, despite it having been mapped out and officially recognised as an indigenous territory which the Brazilian authorities are responsible for protecting.
I visited the Awá for tribal rights organisation Survival International, which is campaigning for the invaders to be evicted from the tribe’s land, Imitrex For Sale. We travelled with a group of Awá to a patch of their forest which had just been cut and burned down.
As we turned a corner on one of the illegal roads built through the forest by the loggers, where can i buy cheapest Imitrex online, the green vegetation gave way to a stark patch of burned land. Order Imitrex online overnight delivery no prescription, Branches lay dead, criss-crossed on the ground under a layer of black ash, and smoke was still rising from the ground immediately before us, Imitrex from canada, and far into the distance.
“The loggers come here with their trucks and they take the trees away, Imitrex street price, ” Pire’i Ma’a Awá told us. “I do not know how we are going to eat. Everything is being destroyed, Imitrex natural, the whole area. Imitrex For Sale, This land is mine, it is ours. Imitrex no rx, We Indians live in the forest. This is Indian land.”
Hunting is crucial for the Awá’s survival, but the more forest is lost, Imitrex from canadian pharmacy, the less game there is to sustain them. Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, “The loggers cut down the trees, and all the game run away,” Katu Awá told us, Imitrex for sale. “The pigs, My Imitrex experience, the deer, the monkeys, they all run away, doses Imitrex work. There is nothing to eat, Imitrex For Sale. We Indians are angry, Imitrex use, very angry, because the loggers are stealing our trees, they are building roads, Imitrex no prescription, they are destroying the whole area.”
For a few of the young men in the group, Imitrex trusted pharmacy reviews, it was the first time they had seen such large scale devastation of their land. They were shocked into silence on the journey back to their village, where they spent the rest of the day and evening recounting what they had seen to their families.
The increase in illegal logging is the latest in a series of violations of the Awá’s right to live undisturbed on their land, is Imitrex addictive. Following the discovery of iron ore on their land in the 1970s and the massive Carajás industrial project, Imitrex wiki, which included the construction of roads, railways, dams, Imitrex images, and mines in the region, Canada, mexico, india, the tribe’s forest was opened up to unprecedented invasions by outsiders. Many of the Awá alive today are haunted by the memory of seeing their families killed in massacres and violence at the hands of the invading ranchers and settlers.
One Awá man, Karapiru, taking Imitrex, spent twelve years living alone in the forest, Imitrex interactions, having been separated from his family in 1975 when they were attacked by ranchers. Imitrex For Sale, He recounted his experience, “At the time of the massacre, I was the only survivor of the family. I hid in the forest, and escaped from the white people, Imitrex mg. They killed my mother, Imitrex pharmacy, my brothers and sisters, and my wife. I lived, herbal Imitrex, always managing to escape from the ranchers. Imitrex photos, I walked a long, long way, always hiding in the forest, online Imitrex without a prescription. I was very hungry and it was very hard to survive.”
Karapiru made contact with white people in 1988, and he was later reunited with his son who he had assumed had been killed along with the rest of his family, Imitrex For Sale. He now lives with his new wife Manimi, Imitrex brand name, and their daughter Makriankwa, in the Awá village of Tiracambu.
Around three-hundred Awá are now settled in four villages. Another sixty to hundred Awá remain uncontacted and live as nomads in the forest, Imitrex coupon, apart from the four Awá communities, Purchase Imitrex online no prescription, and constantly on the run from the illegal loggers.
For the uncontacted Awá, the danger is greatest. They rely completely on their forest for food – without it, Imitrex use, they can not survive. Generic Imitrex, They also risk death if they come into contact with the loggers. Imitrex For Sale, Besides the possibility of violent conflict erupting, the uncontacted Awá have very little immunity to outside diseases such as the common cold and flu, which could kill them, as has been seen numerous times in the past following first contact between tribes and outsiders.
The growing challenges of living uncontacted in the forest has pushed some uncontacted Awá to make contact with their relatives in their villages. Itachi Awá remembers a group of uncontacted Indians coming to live in his community. “A while ago we saw signs of some uncontacted Awá near the Presidio stream, Imitrex wiki,” he said. Imitrex price, coupon, “At first, they did not want to talk to us, but then they came to live in our village, purchase Imitrex online. The loggers are putting increasing pressure on our uncontacted relatives, and they are being forced to flee.”
The future of the Awá people, the uncontacted Awá in particular, is in the hands of the government’s Indian Affairs Department, FUNAI, the police, the Maranhão state government and the government’s environment agency IBAMA, whose joint responsibility it is to protect the Awá’s land.
The Awá are determined to fight for their survival, and have begun to lobby the authorities through written complaints and protests. Last year, a group of Awá left their forest home for the first time in order to protest in the town of Zé Doca, Imitrex For Sale. “We told the government that it had to protect us.” Manachika Awá said. “A local mayor said we do not exist. We showed them that we do exist, we live in our forest, and we need our land.”
“We must make sure the loggers are removed,” Amiri told us as we watched his young daughters making juice from the açaí berries we had collected. “If not, the forest will disappear. We are the owners of our forest.”
Survival International has launched an urgent international campaign to support the Awá’s fight for the protection of their land. It is calling on the Brazilian authorities to uphold their constitutional rights and remove all invaders from the Awá’s territory as a matter of urgency, and to put in place an effective monitoring system to ensure that no future invasions take place. If fast action is not taken to save the Awá’s forest, it will not be long before they cease to exist. We can not let that happen.
Sarah Shenker is a campaigner with Survival International.
In print: Independent World Report -- Issue 6/Spring 2011..
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April 5, 2010
[caption id="attachment_1573" align="alignnone" width="480" caption="Secret classroom: Photo courtesy Bahai International Community."][/caption]
L Tramadol For Sale, ate on the evening of March 2, members of the Iranian intelligence ministry entered Navid Khanjani's home in the city of Esfahan and arrested him. The next day, Tramadol over the counter, Tramadol without a prescription, they conducted similar raids at the homes of Eeghan Shahidi, Sama Nourani, Tramadol images, Australia, uk, us, usa, Hesam Misaghi and Sepehr Atefi. They arrested Shahidi and Nourani, order Tramadol from mexican pharmacy, Online buy Tramadol without a prescription, but could not detain Misaghi and Atefi because the two had fled to Turkey weeks before.
Two days later, six intelligence agents went to Dorsa Sobhani's home in the northern town of Sari, Tramadol duration. Purchase Tramadol for sale, Not finding her home, they arrested her father, get Tramadol, Buy cheap Tramadol, took him to an unknown location, interrogated him, buy Tramadol from mexico, Where to buy Tramadol, and pressured him to reveal his daughter's whereabouts. Sobhani turned herself in on March 7, doses Tramadol work, Tramadol brand name, and is currently being held in Evin Prison in Tehran.
Why did the Iranian government target these six young people?
Khanjani and the others are members of the Bahai community, Iran's largest non-Muslim minority with 300, Tramadol no rx, Tramadol treatment, 000 members. Despite their intimate ties to the land and the people of Iran (the Bahai faith was founded in Iran in the nineteenth century), Bahais have been the constant target of state-sanctioned discrimination and violence for more than a century.
Today, much of this intolerance stems from propagations by the Iranian government (shared by a few other Muslim states), that the Bahai faith is a wayward sect or cult whose members have deviated from Islam and are therefore apostates, Tramadol For Sale. After the founding of the Islamic republic in 1979, Tramadol steet value, Tramadol trusted pharmacy reviews, Iran's Bahais found themselves in the unenviable position of being the country's largest religious minority without any official recognition under the new constitution.
Unlike Iran's Jewish, Christian, Tramadol pictures, Cheap Tramadol no rx, and Zoroastrian populations who are recognised under Article 13 of the Iranian constitution, Bahais have no representation in Iran's Majlis, Tramadol for sale, Effects of Tramadol, or parliament. The lack of constitutional recognition -- and as a result, buy Tramadol without prescription, Tramadol dangers, the lack of provisions for protection -- has made it easier for the government to attack Bahais and their social and cultural institutions with impunity, and to deny them the right to practise their faith openly, buy Tramadol no prescription. Order Tramadol from United States pharmacy, The discrimination has been particularly acute in the area of higher education.
During the 1980s, government policy required all Bahais to renounce their faith in order to be able to attend Iran's public or even private universities, Tramadol reviews. Comprar en línea Tramadol, comprar Tramadol baratos, Officials enforced this policy with the full knowledge that Bahais are obligated, as a matter of religious principle, buy Tramadol without a prescription, Order Tramadol no prescription, to pronounce their adherence to their faith if asked.
Thus, the government effectively denied thousands of students entry to Iran's universities, Tramadol interactions. Tramadol For Sale, When Bahai groups attempted to fill the void by establishing private educational committees to teach their young, the government targeted their activities, shut down the institutions, and charged many of the administrators with crimes such as propaganda against the system.
In 1991, the Iranian government adopted a slightly different policy vis-à-vis its Bahai minority. Taking Tramadol, In a secret directive titled The Bahai question, the Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution -- an executive agency charged with promulgating regulations in public sector employment and education -- called for an end to arrests, is Tramadol safe, Tramadol no prescription, detentions or punishment "without reason," but, where can i order Tramadol without prescription, Tramadol dosage, made it clear that the government must deal with Bahais "in such a way that their progress and development are blocked."
With regard to education, the council specifically noted that Bahais "must be expelled from universities, Tramadol from canadian pharmacy, Tramadol from canada, either in the admission process or during the course of their studies, once it becomes known that they are Bahais." With little regard to its blatant violation of both international law and Iranian constitutional provisions banning discrimination, Tramadol schedule, Tramadol pics, the directive remains in effect.
In 2004, presumably as a result of mounting international pressure, the government finally allowed Bahai students to sit for the national university exams without having to declare their religious affiliation, but, it has found ways of denying access to university enrolment later in the admission process.
According to the Bahai community's United Nations office, over 800 Bahais participated in the exams for the academic year 2006-2007. While 480 of them passed, only 289 were admitted. Of the 289, university administrators eventually identified more than half as Bahais and either rejected them during subsequent stages of the admission process or expelled them after enrolment.
Similar actions were taken during the subsequent academic years. During the 2008-2009 academic year, for example, the government directed students identified as Bahais to a specific internet address to receive their entrance exam results. When they arrived at the web page, the message read: “Error: Incomplete file, Tramadol For Sale. Forward correspondence to the Education Assessment Organisation c/o PO Box 31535-3166, Karaj.”
It is within this oppressive environment, the six students arrested in March struggled to regain their right to initiate or continue their university education. Over the course of the past few years, the government had either denied them entry or expelled them from Iran's universities because they were Bahais.
Esfahan's Sana'i University dismissed Misaghi after he received a letter from the ministry of science indicating that they knew he was from a Bahai family. Shahidi and Nourani were similarly expelled from their universities. The government allowed Khanjani, Sobhani and Atefi to sit for the national exam, but did not allow them to enrol in a university, claiming their files were incomplete. Tramadol For Sale, When the students lodged grievances with the ministry of science and the Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution, their complaints were summarily dismissed.
In response to these events, Khanjani and the others in 2009 helped found a civil society organisation, the Population to Combat Educational Discrimination, to bring attention to the problems of the Bahais and other students denied access to university education because of their religious and political beliefs.
In cooperation with other human rights groups -- Human Rights Activists in Iran, the Committee of Human Rights Reporters, and the Council to Defend the Right to Education -- the students held meetings in various cities across Iran, including Tehran, Shiraz, Sari and Kermanshah. During their meetings, students and activists openly shared their experiences and shed light on the draconian role played by various government agencies tasked with implementing the 1991 directive from the Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution.
Iranian government's reaction to these activities has been decisive and brutal, and has included the arrests of the six young people whose only crime was to advocate on behalf of those seeking a college education. During Khanjani's arrest, security agents reportedly told him that they knew Misaghi and Atefi were in Turkey, but, they would eventually succeed in bringing them back to Iran. In addition to these Bahai students, many of the human rights activists with whom they cooperated over the past few years are now also in prison for their activities.
Given this backdrop, it is surprising that during a the periodic review of Iran's human rights record by the United Nations Human Rights Council in February, Iran's representative Javad Larijani boldly declared, "No Bahai in Iran is prosecuted because he is a Bahai."
Then again, perhaps Larijani was partly right. After all, there is at least a plausible argument that Khanjani, Shahidi, Nourani and Sobhani would not be serving time in prison today had they simply kept quiet, and accepted their lot.
Faraz Sanei is Researcher (Middle East & North Africa), Human Rights Watch.
In print: Independent World Report -- Issue 4/April 2010.
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