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Quinine For Sale, [caption id="attachment_2487" align="alignnone" width="480" caption="Choucha refugee camp, Libya-Tunisia border: Photo by Mohamed Ali Mhenni/Wikimedia."][/caption]

The camera pans out on a dense sea of people pushing and shoving against one another, trying to work their way through the noisy crowd on the border between Libya and Tunisia. One lone voice narrates above the clamour, Quinine from mexico, “The scene at the Libyan border is getting ugly.” He goes on to explain that these are migrant workers from Egypt who are attempting to flee the violence in Libya.


“Expect more scenes like this in the days and weeks to come,” he declares in a sombre tone, before the frame shifts to another dense sea of people, buy Quinine online no prescription, lying under blankets as the sand swirls about in the background. Quinine online cod, The camera zooms in on a few men who look back at the lens with vacant stares. The voice narrating the scene concludes on a tragic, lyrical note, effects of Quinine, “As the wind picks up, Quinine mg, this growing army of stranded foreign workers is left camping in the dirt, victims of the storm that is transforming the Middle East.”


This is the voice of Ivan Watson reporting for CNN on March 1. Thanks to round-the-clock coverage, canada, mexico, india, cable and network news have indeed shown many similar scenes over the last several weeks. The vast majority of these reports have, like this one, trafficked in the clichés of humanitarian crisis journalism, Quinine For Sale. Quinine gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, Focusing on the chaos and suffering of the immediate moment, they tell us little about the lives of the people who are supposedly the objects of our sympathy and nothing about the larger systemic issues fuelling their plight.


The more one delves into the back story of the Libyan refugee crisis, the more it becomes clear that the current predicament of refugees in Libya is just the most recent and dramatic episode in a much larger story of injustice and abuse, online buying Quinine. And although CNN-style reports bring viewers in the United States and Europe in on the side of the refugees, Quinine forum, the actions of Western governments tell a different story – a story of apathy toward the very migrant workers who comprise the refugee population.


Before the crisis, as many as 2.5 million migrants worked in Libya, making it one of the biggest importers of labour in the region, ordering Quinine online. The migrants came mostly from Africa and Asia for jobs in the oil and construction industries. Quinine over the counter, The influx of foreign workers began in the 1990s, when, in response to United Nations trade sanctions, Quinine class, Libya increasingly relied on Sub-Saharan labour to fuel its oil economy.


More recently, Quinine pharmacy, since 2003, when Libya’s rapprochement with the United States and Europe began, the tide of migrants has continued to rise, is Quinine safe. Quinine For Sale, As part of the privatisation of Libya’s economy, hundreds of thousands of workers have come from Bangladesh and the Philippines, as well as from other countries in North Africa and the Middle East. Some of them entered the country on legal work permits, Quinine street price, but the vast majority came illegally.


Since the start of the fighting, close to 300,000 migrant workers have crossed from Libya into Tunisia and Egypt, Quinine from canada. Most are from poor countries that did not provide means for their citizens to return to their home countries. Cheap Quinine no rx, Most of the refugees arrived at the camps with little but the shirt on their backs, having been robbed by Libyan officials on their way out of the country. As the men and women at the Ras Adjir camp in Tunisia explained, rx free Quinine, this was not the first time they had been robbed or assaulted by Libyan authorities.


Migrant workers in Libya, Buy cheap Quinine no rx, as elsewhere, are subject to abuse at the hands of their employers and the larger network of profiteers who make money off the migrant economy. Many paid large sums to employment brokers who enlisted them in a form of indentured servitude, sometimes garnishing their wages until the debt was paid, Quinine For Sale. Several Bangladeshi workers in Ras Adjir said they still owed their brokers the $5000 fee but had no way to pay it.


Migrants were often promised more money than they were actually paid, cheap Quinine. One man from Bangladesh explained that he was promised a salary of $600 a month, Quinine long term, but was not paid at all on the first job. Forced labour is not uncommon. According to US State Department’s 2009 human rights report on Libya, low dose Quinine, as many as 1% of all illegal migrants in Libya are victims of human trafficking forced into commercial sex work.


Illegal migrants are subject to abuse outside as well as inside the workplace. Quinine For Sale, They face a greater risk of being beaten and robbed and are beholden to ghetto landlords who charge excessive rent as a form of hush money. After Quinine, Sub-Saharan Africans face racial discrimination as well. In 2000, Libyan youth participated in a wave of anti-immigrant violence targeted at black Africans, Quinine dose, resulting in the deaths of between fifty and five-hundred people, Taking Quinine, a precursor to the current, though questionable reports that large numbers of Africans are serving as mercenaries for Qaddafi’s forces.


Although Qaddafi has opened the tap of migrant labour when it has served his political and economic purposes, variously invoking Pan-Africanism and Pan-Arabism, buy cheap Quinine, he has also cracked down hard on illegal migrants when the political winds have shifted. Quinine overnight, In recent years, the Libyan government has amped up the threat of deportation and randomly rounded up undocumented migrants or contract workers who have not renewed their licenses.


Once rounded up, they are taken to one of at least ten known detention centres, Quinine maximum dosage, where, Quinine treatment, according to Human Rights Watch, they have limited access to food, water, Quinine dosage, and sanitation. Doses Quinine work, Detainees interviewed by Human Rights Watch report numerous instances of physical and sexual abuse, as well as accounts of detainees being unloaded into the desert or directly to human smugglers.


The European and US governments not only failed to take action in response to these abuses, they also helped to fuel the problem in both direct and indirect ways, Quinine canada, mexico, india. Italy, Libya’s biggest foreign investor, is also the most complicit in the Libyan government’s abuse of migrant workers.


In 2008, Italy made a bid to increase its economic investment in Libya, Quinine For Sale. The country’s largest energy company, Quinine dangers, Eni, pledged $28 billion to obtain lucrative contracts for developing new oil fields in Libya in the coming decades. That same year, my Quinine experience, Berlusconi and Qaddafi signed a friendship treaty in which Italy pledged $5 billion to Libya in exchange for favourable treatment in energy, About Quinine, infrastructure, and defence contracts.


For its part, Libya promised to slow down the flood of illegal immigrants coming to Italy through Libya, order Quinine from mexican pharmacy, which has long served as the main portal to Europe from Africa. Buy Quinine from canada, In addition to effectively underwriting the Libyan detention system, Eni and other Italian companies are also the de facto employers of untold numbers of migrant workers in the Libyan oil and construction sectors. Berlusconi reluctantly suspended the friendship treaty at the end of February, discount Quinine. Libya’s unrest has raised deep concerns for the Italian economy more broadly.


Quinine For Sale, The enhanced friendship between Italy and Libya was just one aspect, albeit an important one, of a broader shift in the international community’s relationship with Libya since 2003. When Qaddafi threw his lot in with the United States and the European Union in the war on terror, Fast shipping Quinine, he also agreed to begin privatising Libya’s almost exclusively state-run economy and open it up to direct foreign investment. In 2007, the International Monetary Fund praised Libya for “diversifying its economy.”


Increased foreign investment meant an increased need for cheap foreign labour to build the roads and oil refineries that would form the backbone of the new globalised Libya, what is Quinine. The same voices that celebrated the opening of Libya’s economy remained silent on the issue of migrant workers rights.


The passive response of the European Union and the United States on the rights of migrant workers in Libya is no exception. There has been a similar quietude in response to migrant labour abuses across the Middle East. The Persian Gulf is a particularly stark example, Quinine For Sale. The grand cities of Dubai and Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates are being built largely on the backs of exploited and abused migrant workers who have little to no recourse to redress their grievances.


These city-states continue to enjoy good relations with Europe and the United States, as well as with private foreign investors looking to capitalise on their growth. Of course, migrant workers are nothing new for Europe and the United States, where they constitute large segments of the work force and are similarly lacking in legal protection and subject to various human rights abuses.


December 2010 marked the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the rights of migrants. Only forty-four states have signed it. Notably, the biggest hosts to migrant workers have not, including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, France, Italy, Germany, the United States, and Britain.


In the lead-up to the anniversary, the Council of International Unions held a conference in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico to address the issues of temporary work contracts. Quinine For Sale, Other international labour groups held similar conferences and rallies to bring the issue of migrant workers’ rights to the forefront of the international community’s agenda. Where were the CNN cameras then?


CNN’s disinterest in the broader context of migrant labour in Libya and elsewhere is a symptom of the corporate media’s inattention to underlying social and economic forces in contemporary conflicts. One result of this inattention has been a very narrow and distorted picture of the ongoing upheaval in the Middle East. Contrary to Ivan Watson’s storm metaphor, the events in the Middle East were not a spontaneous natural weather event.


Although the demand for political freedom has been the most visible aspect of the revolts in the region, critics of neoliberalism have argued that economic grievances played a key role in fuelling the ongoing conflicts. These grievances constitute another dimension of the increasingly neoliberal economy that enlists migrant workers.


Like other countries in North Africa and the Middle East, Libya has an extremely high rate of unemployment, although it employs vast numbers of foreign workers. The figures are murky, but experts estimate the unemployment rate to be between 25% and 30%.


Libya’s oil wealth has so far supported subsidies to its citizens to counteract these economic pressures, but some economists believe that unemployment will rise alongside increased privatisation and foreign direct investment, Quinine For Sale. Elsewhere in the region, the lack of subsidies has left educated youth with little economic opportunity. These were the youth that toppled the Tunisian and Egyptian dictatorships and that are leading the ongoing protests in Bahrain.


The return of hundreds of thousands of migrant workers to Egypt and Tunisia in particular puts added pressure on all segments of the economy in these areas. The future of the migrant workers is uncertain, but one thing is for sure. By the time they start looking for work in their home countries or a new destination, Ivan Watson and the CNN cameras will be far away – busy reporting on the next humanitarian crisis of the moment.


-----

Hannah Gurman is Assistant Professor, Gallatin School of Individualized Study, New York University. Republished by special arrangement: This article was originally published in Foreign policy in focus.


In print: Independent World Report -- Issue 6/Spring 2011.

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Muammar Qaddafi: Photo by US Navy.

[caption id="attachment_117" align="alignnone" width="480" caption="Muammar Qaddafi: Photo by US Navy."]Muammar Qaddafi: Photo by US Navy.[/caption]

Kamel Labidi on Libya's war against the press.

A Celebrex For Sale, s sixty-seven-years-old Colonel Muammar Qaddafi, celebrated the fortieth anniversary of his ascent to power this August, presumably none of the numerous international guests ventured to ask the Libyan dictator or his aides what happened to journalist Abdullah Ali al-Sanussi al-Darrat after his arbitrary arrest thirty-six years ago. Celebrex cost, Al-Darrat, a journalist and writer from Benghazi, Celebrex no prescription, Celebrex from mexico, Libya’s second-largest city, vanished following his detention without trial in 1973, online buy Celebrex without a prescription, Celebrex no rx, according to international human rights groups and the Western Europe-based Libyan League for Human Rights.


Repeated calls on Libyan authorities over the past decades from international rights groups, including the Committee to Project Journalists, Celebrex results, Fast shipping Celebrex, to shed light on al-Darrat’s whereabouts have fallen on deaf ears. CPJ encouraged colleagues all over the world to write to Qaddafi – who took power in the bloodless military coup that toppled King Idris on September 1, where can i buy cheapest Celebrex online, Purchase Celebrex for sale, 1969 – to enquire about al-Darrat’s fate. But the Revolution’s Guide and the King of Kings, cheap Celebrex no rx, Celebrex natural, as the longest-serving ruler in Africa and the Arab world likes to be called, ignored such queries.


No information has ever surfaced as to the basis for al-Darrat’s detention, order Celebrex online c.o.d, Rx free Celebrex, his whereabouts, or even whether he is still alive, get Celebrex. My Celebrex experience, His fate is reminiscent of the disappearance of other Libyan writers and dissidents, as well as that of the prominent Lebanese Shia leader Musa al-Sadr and his two companions who arrived in Libya in 1978 to meet with government officials, australia, uk, us, usa. They were never heard of again, Celebrex For Sale. Celebrex street price, Lebanese government officials said Qaddafi was responsible for their disappearance.


Al-Darrat’s disappearance occurred at a time when Qaddafi was leading a terror campaign against freedom of association and expression. He warned his critics that the price for dissent would be execution, Celebrex duration. Buy generic Celebrex, Later, Libyan dissidents and critical journalists living in exile, where can i buy Celebrex online, Generic Celebrex, officially called stray dogs, were targeted, Celebrex pictures. Celebrex images, Some of them were gunned down. Celebrex For Sale, Others like Mansur Khikia, former foreign minister and member of the board of the Cairo-based Arab Organization for Human Rights, disappeared in December 1993, in the Egyptian capital.


Unfortunately, Qaddafi’s merciless attacks on Libyan journalists, whose sole crime was to expose cases of abuse of power, nepotism and corruption, did not get enough media attention. One of the victims of this unabated war on freedom of expression was Dayf al-Ghazal, Celebrex blogs, Celebrex without prescription, a former journalist for the government-owned daily Azahf al-Akhdar and contributor to the London-based websites Libya Alyoum and Libya Jeel.


Like al-Darrat, al-Ghazal was from Benghazi, Celebrex steet value. Comprar en línea Celebrex, comprar Celebrex baratos, His disfigured body was found in the suburbs of this Mediterranean city in June 2005, after he went missing from his home for nearly two weeks, Celebrex duration, Celebrex without prescription, according to several sources. This happened about the same time well-known Lebanese journalist and democracy advocate Samir Qassir was killed in a car bomb in Beirut, Celebrex from canada. Celebrex natural, To date, no credible and transparent inquiry into al-Ghazal’s death has been conducted, online buying Celebrex. Many believe that his online articles on rising corruption among government officials led to his abduction and extrajudicial killing by government agents.


Al-Ghazal’s assassination was perpetrated after Libya started its return to the international scene and inaugurated its costly public relations campaign to improve its stained image in Western capitals following nearly two decades of ostracism spurred by United Nations Security Council sanctions, Celebrex For Sale. Where can i order Celebrex without prescription, Yet media remain tightly muzzled.


The nationalisation in April of the satellite news channel Al-Libya and its sister papers Oea and Cyrene, which were launched in 2007 by Qaddafi’s son and outspoken lobbyist Sayf al-Islam and his Al-Ghad Foundation, buy cheap Celebrex no rx, Order Celebrex from United States pharmacy, came as a reminder that there is still no genuine tolerance for independent journalism. This government decision was taken after Al-Libya broadcast material referring to the use of torture and persecution of dissidents in the country, Celebrex from mexico, Rx free Celebrex, according to news reports.


Commenting on the nationalisation of these media outlets, the Libyan League for Human Rights said, Celebrex gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, Celebrex for sale, on World Press Freedom Day, that freedom of expression is not a privilege that can be granted and withdrawn at any time, order Celebrex online c.o.d, but a constitutional right that “can not exist without genuine political opening.” It also reported that several journalists and intellectuals, including many working for Al-Ghad Foundation, had been summoned this year for interrogation by state security and press prosecutors.


The human rights league noted that there were serious indications that the office of the press prosecutor had been involved in recent attacks aimed at destroying critical websites, and that it had issued instructions to Libyan embassies to take to court publishers and journalists critical of the Libyan regime, particularly in Africa and the Arab world. It mentioned, for instance, the complaint filed this year against the independent Moroccan dailies Al-Massae, Al-Jarida al-Oula, and Al-Ahdath al-Magrebia for defaming Qaddafi. A court in Casablanca ordered the three dailies in June to pay a crippling fine and damages to the Libyan dictator.


This trial, which was closely monitored by CPJ and prompted angry reactions among journalists and human rights defenders in the region, provided a new example not only of Libya’s war without borders on independent journalism, but also revealed the determination of less autocratic Arab governments to keep the media on tight leash.


“It seems that President Qaddafi, after he overthrew press freedom in Libya, has started to focus his attention and experience toward prosecuting Arab journalists outside his country. Thus, we all have to stand by these journalists, in order to preserve what is left of press freedom in the Arab world,” said the Cairo-based Arabic Network for Human Rights Information.♦


Kamel Labidi is the Middle East representative of Committee to Protect Journalists. An earlier version of this article was published in the CPJ weblog: http://www.cpj.org/blog

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