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Bihari woman, Bangladesh: Photo by Shafiur Rahman.

Allopurinol For Sale, [caption id="attachment_881" align="alignnone" width="480" caption="Bihari woman, Bangladesh: Photo by Shafiur Rahman."]Bihari woman, Bangladesh: Photo by Shafiur Rahman.[/caption]

Maureen Lynch of Refugees International writes about the twelve million people worldwide who are forced to live their lives without a nationality. While recent developments in Bangladesh and Kenya are encouraging, Allopurinol samples, large groups of stateless people in the Dominican Republic, Syria, and Kuwait continue to live in limbo.

“We ask ourselves: Will our children have food tomorrow, Allopurinol online cod. Can they get education. Low dose Allopurinol, Where will they get healthcare if they get sick. The answers to these questions should be simple in a very rich country like Kuwait, but, buy Allopurinol from canada, a Bidun has no guarantee of finding any answers.”

Questions like these haunt more than twelve million people worldwide. They are people who have no legal tie to any country, Allopurinol For Sale. Allopurinol without a prescription, They are stateless. While there has been some progress in recent years, the campaign to solve this overlooked human rights problem is far from over, order Allopurinol no prescription. Meanwhile, Where can i buy Allopurinol online, lives are wasted and needless suffering continues.

Nationality is a fundamental human right and a foundation of identity, dignity, justice, Allopurinol mg, peace and security. Allopurinol schedule, Statelessness, or the lack of effective nationality, affects millions of men, Allopurinol alternatives, women and children in all regions of the world. Being stateless means having no legal protection or right to participate in political processes; inadequate access to healthcare and education; poor employment prospects and poverty; little or no opportunity to own property; travel restrictions; social exclusion; vulnerability to trafficking; harassment and violence.

Allopurinol For Sale, Common causes of statelessness include shifts in political power; reconfiguration of international borders; and differences in laws between countries that can leave someone without a nationality. Discount Allopurinol, Children of migrant workers who are not or can not be registered at birth may be at risk of statelessness.

Because states have the sovereign right to determine the procedures and conditions for acquisition and loss of citizenship, statelessness and disputed nationality must ultimately be resolved by governments. But, Allopurinol no prescription, state determinations on citizenship must conform to general principles of international law. Allopurinol price, coupon, And when states do not act, it is the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees that has the official mandate to protect stateless persons.

Since 2004, Refugees International has visited over a dozen countries to assess the situation of people who are stateless or at risk of statelessness, buy Allopurinol without a prescription. The organisation’s most recent report – Nationality rights for all: A progress report and global survey on statelessness – provides an updated global survey of statelessness in over eighty countries and assesses progress made since 2005 in protecting the human rights of stateless persons and in preventing and reducing statelessness.

It highlights cases of progress, Allopurinol interactions, like Bangladesh and Kenya, which illustrate how improvements can occur, but also the challenges remaining to achieve complete and lasting solutions to statelessness, Allopurinol dose. These cases demonstrate the critical roles of political will (or the lack of it), international and national legal frameworks, liaison efforts by the UN and other agencies, as well as the initiative of stateless people themselves.

In Bangladesh, following legal precedent, most of the Urdu-speaking minority (also called Bihari or stranded Pakistanis) were recognised as citizens in a May 2008 high court judgement, Allopurinol For Sale. Since 1971, Allopurinol coupon, at least 200,000 and as many as 500,000 people from this minority have lived in squalid urban slums, Allopurinol pharmacy, with limited access to healthcare, Allopurinol brand name, education and livelihoods. For thirty-seven years, neither Bangladesh nor Pakistan recognised them as citizens, Allopurinol from canada. As a first step towards integration, Allopurinol cost, the high court ordered that willing adults be registered to vote and issued national identification cards.

In Kenya, around 100,000 Nubians have had less difficulty obtaining national identity cards, canada, mexico, india, particularly since they filed lawsuits in 2003 and 2004 against the government in the Kenyan high court and the African Commission on Human and People’s Rights in Gambia.

At the same time, Allopurinol long term, large groups of stateless people in the Dominican Republic, Syria and Kuwait continue to live in limbo.

The number of stateless Dominico-Haitians is not known. According to the US State Department, get Allopurinol, approximately 650, Comprar en línea Allopurinol, comprar Allopurinol baratos, 000 Haitians live in bateyes – clusters of concrete barracks or wooden shacks near sugar cane plantations – without any documentation, sanitation, or healthcare, after Allopurinol. Allopurinol For Sale, Because of their migrant status and darker skin complexion, many face discrimination and deportation. Although Article 11 of the constitution allows everyone born in the Dominican Republic to be a citizen, Allopurinol forum, Haitian children are denied citizenship on the basis that they are falsely considered in transit, not having regularised their stay in the country. Children must be officially registered at the Haitian consulate in Santo Domingo, Allopurinol reviews, but most are probably not registered because their parents consider themselves Dominican. Online Allopurinol without a prescription, Parents often do not register their children because of lack of knowledge, economic resources, or documentation proving their Haitian citizenship.

In 2005, buy Allopurinol without prescription, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights found that in preventing two children from obtaining their birth certificates, Allopurinol pictures, the Dominican Republic violated their right to nationality, the rights of the child, and the right to equal protection before the law, order Allopurinol from mexican pharmacy. Since the court ruling, Allopurinol trusted pharmacy reviews, however, the situation has not improved, but has worsened.

Approximately 80, herbal Allopurinol,000 to 140, Online buy Allopurinol without a prescription, 000 stateless Bidun reside in Kuwait. Most Bidun in Kuwait are descendants of Bedouin tribes that roamed freely across national borders in the region, Allopurinol For Sale. Either because their ancestors failed to understand the importance of citizenship, because of illiteracy, online buying Allopurinol hcl, or given their centuries-old nomadic way of life, Australia, uk, us, usa, they could not furnish sufficient proof that they were settled in any particular country. As a result, hundreds of thousands became stateless, what is Allopurinol. The country’s 1959 Nationality Law defined Kuwaiti nationals as persons who were settled in Kuwait prior to 1920 and who maintained their normal residence there until the date of the publication of the law. Allopurinol samples, Approximately one third of the population was recognised as full-fledged citizens. Allopurinol For Sale, Another third was naturalised and granted partial citizenship rights. The remaining third was classified as bidun jinsiya, meaning without citizenship, buy Allopurinol from mexico. The law has been amended fourteen times since and with almost every amendment has become more restrictive.

After 1985, Bidun were dismissed from their jobs, children were barred from public and private schools, and driving licenses were revoked. They could no longer carry passports unless they left the country and renounced the right to return. Following the liberation of the country from Iraqi occupation in 1991, they were fired en masse from positions in the military and police. Only a small fraction was rehired, Allopurinol For Sale. Those dismissed could not collect severance pay unless they produced a passport, either Kuwaiti or foreign, or left the country. The Bidun can not petition the courts to have their citizenship claims adjudicated.

Citizenship in Kuwait is passed on to children through their fathers, not their mothers. Consequently, the children of a Kuwaiti woman and a Bidun husband are also Bidun. In theory a child of a divorced Kuwaiti woman or widow can acquire citizenship, creating an incentive for couples to divorce for the sake of their children’s future. Allopurinol For Sale, However, individuals interviewed by Refugees International have said that they are still waiting on their cases.

Governments, the UN, stateless people, and each of us can take action to resolve statelessness. All states must respect human rights and facilitate acquisition of nationality for all individuals, and ensure that ethnic, religious and gender discrimination is eliminated from all nationality legislation. Countries should ensure that every child is registered at birth, whether born to married parents or not. Equal access to health care, education and employment must be given. The UN refugee agency must take concrete steps to fully live up to its mandate to help stateless persons.

Excuses for continuing to violate human rights are growing thin. One Nubian elder aptly advised other stateless groups to “use international organisations and international law to apply pressure on your government to implement the law, Allopurinol For Sale. Tickle the minds of decision-makers.” Bolder and more creative efforts to uphold nationality rights for all – a foundation of identity, dignity, justice, peace and security – must be identified and relentlessly pursued.

Ensuring nationality rights for all is a war that can be waged and won.♦

Maureen Lynch is Senior Advocate for Statelessness Initiatives, Refugees International. For more on the campaign to end statelessness, see:


If you like this and other posts in this website, please consider subscribing to the print edition of Independent World Report. We are a reader-supported newsmagazine of human rights journalism. As we are trying to build a new global platform of independent journalism, we hope that you will join us.

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Rohingya refugee child in Teknaf, Bangladesh: Photo by Tin Soe, Kaladan Press Network.

Buy Armour Without Prescription, [caption id="attachment_145" align="alignnone" width="480" caption="Rohingya refugee child in Teknaf: Photo by Tin Soe, Kaladan Press Network."]Rohingya refugee child in Teknaf, Bangladesh: Photo by Tin Soe, Kaladan Press Network.[/caption]

Naomi Pardington
writes about the Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh.

When four-year-old Laila reached the Médecins Sans Frontières clinic in Kutupalong refugee camp she was, as the staff described, almost dead. So severely malnourished and dehydrated, she was having difficulty to walk or even cry, ordering Armour online. The sores that covered her body oozed with infection as her depleted immune system gave in.

Thirteen-year-old Fatima visibly bared the mark of lack of healthcare. Where can i cheapest Armour online, The large tumour on her face was nothing but a small growth on her nose just a few years back. By the time she arrived at the MSF clinic in April 2009, the growth was so big that it blurred the vision in her left eye and blocked the air passage in her nose.

Nine-month-old Jamil nearly lost his arm, where can i order Armour without prescription, from what begun as a small red bump just a few months back. The bump became infected and overtime the wound steadily increased in size, Buy Armour Without Prescription. Armour used for, When his parents arrived with Jamil at the clinic, the deadened bone was sticking out of his arm.

Children of unofficial Rohingya refugees, Laila, Armour use, Fatima and Jamil know what it means to be stateless and deprived of services that many people around the world take for granted. About Armour, They are among the 22,000 Rohingya people living in grossly unsanitary and crammed conditions in Kutupalong makeshift refugee camp, in southeastern Bangladesh.

Originating from the Rakhine State in western Myanmar, Armour dangers, most of the Rohingya refugees have been denied official refugee status by the government of Bangladesh. Armour coupon, Out of the estimated 250,000 Rohingyas who fled Myanmar, only a paltry 28, buy Armour without a prescription,000 men, Purchase Armour online, women and children are officially recognised as refugees and eligible for basic support from UNHCR, the United Nations refugee agency. The others remain stateless, real brand Armour online, with no one to provide them with food, Comprar en línea Armour, comprar Armour baratos, water, shelter or healthcare.

Over the past year, thousands of unofficial Rohingya refugees have flocked to the makeshift Kutupalong camp, Armour australia, uk, us, usa, clinging to the perimeter of an official UNHCR camp. They have not been provided with any of the basic assistance afforded to their counterparts residing in the official camp.

Buy Armour Without Prescription, The ramifications of being both stateless and without status are evident. Low dose Armour, “It is one of the worst pictures of poverty I have ever come across. People are living in shelters built with bits of plastic, wood or whatever they can find, Armour description. They do not even have any utensils to cook food and the sanitation is just appalling, Cheap Armour, ” says Gemma Davies, MSF project coordinator in Kutupalong.

MSF conducted an initial exploratory assessment in Kutupalong camp in March 2009 where team members found over 20,000 highly vulnerable people struggling to survive day to day without the most basic of amenities, buy cheap Armour no rx. 90% of the refugees were found to be severely underfed since they were unable to gather enough food to meet their daily needs. The situation had soared past World Health Organisation thresholds for what constitutes an emergency.

MSF responded immediately by setting up a project offering basic healthcare, treating the severely malnourished children and improving water sources and waste facilities, Buy Armour Without Prescription. Is Armour safe, Within the first month, MSF enrolled over a thousand malnourished children in its therapeutic feeding programme and treated around 4000 children in its outpatients department.

“Prior to MSF’s arrival, these people had little or no access to healthcare, Armour from canada. While working at the Kutupalong camp, Online buying Armour, I have treated some of the worst medical complications I have ever seen. It is immensely sad and frustrating,” says Kylah Taylor, where to buy Armour, MSF nurse.

In June-July 2009, Armour dose, just months after MSF began its project, Kutupalong camp fell into a full-blown crisis as Bangladeshi authorities resorted to violence and intimidation against the refugees in order to clear the area adjacent to the UNHCR camp. Between June 7 and July 14, Armour for sale, the unofficial refugees were threatened, Buy Armour online cod, arrested and beaten as their homes were destroyed by the local authorities.

On June 15, MSF treated twenty-seven people, including a newborn child, buy Armour from mexico, with violence-related injuries. Buy Armour Without Prescription, On July 14, thirty policemen and some local officials destroyed and looted the makeshift refugee camp. Doses Armour work, In the process, 259 homes were destroyed. “I was working, canada, mexico, india. When I went back to my shelter I found it totally destroyed, Armour from canadian pharmacy, ” a camp resident recounted. “A police inspector was there with nine or ten people. I asked why they destroyed my house, Buy Armour Without Prescription. He showed me a fish cutter and said: ‘One more word and I will cut you.’”

Trapped in a world where they are prevented from supporting themselves and denied any official assistance, buy cheap Armour, unofficial Rohingya refugees are vulnerable to the unscrupulous activities of people manipulating and making profits from their hopes and fears. Armour recreational, A large number of these refugees can be found working illegally as cheap labour, incurring the resentment of local communities. In some cases, Armour price, coupon, the small wages earned by these labourers are extorted from them by the locals. Order Armour from United States pharmacy, Regular harassment by the police, including beatings and detentions, is also widespread, Armour without a prescription. There are also reports of Rohingya women being coerced into commercial sex trade.

Buy Armour Without Prescription, The situation in Kutupalong is symptomatic of a far wider crisis, with its root lying across the border in Myanmar. Although they have been living in Myanmar for hundreds of years, Online buying Armour hcl, Rohingyas are denied citizenship by the country’s military government. Denied their basic human rights, Rohingyas face routine persecution and discrimination in their own land, buy no prescription Armour online. They are forbidden to marry, Armour brand name, to have children or to travel without purchasing government issued licenses that cost a prohibitive amount of money. The fear for life and the absolute loss of dignity of those who have fled from Myanmar to Bangladesh is evident in their stories.

One Rohingya woman, now a refugee in Bangladesh, Armour trusted pharmacy reviews, described to MSF how she lost her pregnant daughter resulting from the fear of repercussions of an illegal birth, Armour interactions, “My daughter was pregnant. To kill the baby, she took a root drink and one of our relatives gave her a rough abdominal massage, Buy Armour Without Prescription. She was bleeding badly and having fits. We were scared that the Burmese authorities would force us to pay a huge fine or arrest her because she was pregnant while not officially married, Armour schedule. We did not take her to the hospital, Armour pics, instead, we went to the local healer. She died the next day.”

“Over the years I have heard many reasons why people fled from Myanmar. Buy Armour Without Prescription, Largely it comes down to fear of being arrested or intimidated. A woman and her three children left following her husband’s arrest, in fear for her family. Another couple – the woman some months pregnant – fled out of fear of the repercussions they would face for being unable to afford the official marriage license, not to mention the child birth license,” says Gabriela Popescu, MSF medical coordinator in Bangladesh.

The first wave of Rohingya refugees fled to Bangladesh in 1978, followed by another wave in 1991-1992. Today, despite Bangladesh government’s routine practice of involuntary repatriation to Myanmar, people continue to arrive in Bangladesh, escaping persecution at the hands of the Myanmarese junta. This has developed into a regional challenge as evident in recent headlines about Thai authorities pushing away boatloads of Rohingya men seeking refuge in Thailand back to the sea.

“I was born in Myanmar, but, that government says I do not belong there. I grew up in Bangladesh, but, this government says I can not stay here. As a Rohingya, I am caught between a crocodile and a snake,” a nineteen-year-old unrecognised Rohingya refugee told MSF.

Rohingyas must be guaranteed a healthy and dignified life and if, due to a well founded fear of persecution, they choose to leave their homeland then the government of Bangladesh, and other countries in the region, must offer them refuge and assistance in accordance with international standards of humanitarian assistance.♦

Naomi Pardington is Communications Advisor (Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Moldova, Myanmar, Somalia) at Médecins Sans Frontières. For more information about MSF’s work in Bangladesh and Myanmar see


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