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Ndumie Funda: Photo by Adam Letch.

[caption id="attachment_2664" align="alignnone" width="480" caption="Ndumie Funda: Photo by Adam Letch."][/caption]

Buy Retin-A Without Prescription, “South Africa belongs to all who live in it, united in our diversity.”

The constitution of South Africa is one of the most progressive constitutions of the world. The theme is noble. While it calls for equality in diversity, and respect for all, Retin-A photos, it does not forget to champion justice and freedom. This beautifully worded constitution echoes other great constitutions, like that of the United States, with impressive goals to “lay the foundations for a democratic and open society,” and with promises that “every citizen will be equally protected by law.” Yet, buying Retin-A online over the counter, seventeen years after the end of apartheid, this rainbow nation is again headed straight towards a reality fuelled by violence, hatred, Retin-A class, and phobia.

In 2009, ActionAid reported that a massive 500,000 women were estimated as raped each year in the country. According to a survey by the Medical Research Council of South Africa, 28% of the men who were interviewed had raped a woman, effects of Retin-A. One in twenty said that they had committed sexual crimes in the past years, Buy Retin-A Without Prescription. In a control group of 487 men, around 7% admitted that they had taken part in gang rapes.

Meanwhile, in recent years, Online buy Retin-A without a prescription, homophobia has increased dramatically in small black townships in Johannesburg and Cape Town. According to ActionAid, in 1998, thirty-one women were killed in homophobic attacks. Among the victims of homophobic violence, doses Retin-A work, are lesbian women who are suffering the onslaught of corrective rape. Corrective rape is based on an outrageous notion that a lesbian woman will become heterosexual, if raped by a man eager to “teach her a lesson, Order Retin-A from United States pharmacy, ” or “show her how to be a real woman by getting the chance to know what a real man tastes like.”

To comprehend corrective rape and the deep-rooted sources behind this phenomenon is hard, as accurate statistics and studies are hard to obtain. Buy Retin-A Without Prescription, “Most of the victims do not report,” says Javu Baloyi of the Commission for Gender Equality. “Under-reporting due to stigma and discrimination is the main problem. We are trying to encourage them to open up, be brave enough, Retin-A price, coupon, but most of them are scared of the repercussions that might follow if the attackers come to know.”

The very first case of corrective rape to get wide media attention was the rape and murder of Eudy Simelane. She was thirty-one, an international footballer training to become the first female referee in the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Retin-A treatment, In April 2008, Eudy was gang-raped and stabbed twenty-five times. She was the first woman to live openly as a lesbian in the Kwa Thema township near Johannesburg.

Her mother, Mally Simelane, told ActionAid that she lived in fear for her own safety constantly, “I am scared of those people, that they are going to come and kill me too, Buy Retin-A Without Prescription. I do not know what happened. Why did they do this horrible thing, because of who she was, herbal Retin-A. She was a sweet lady, she never fought with anyone. Why would they kill her. Buy Retin-A Without Prescription, She was stabbed, twenty-five holes in her. Buy Retin-A without a prescription, The whole body, even under the feet.”

Despite all the global media coverage, Eudy’s case could not get the justice she deserved. In February 2009, twenty-three-year-old Thaoto Mpithi, Retin-A mg, one of the accused, was sentenced to prison for thirty-two years. He implicated three other men. Buy Retin-A without prescription, Two of them were acquitted due to lack of evidence. The third man, twenty-four-year-old Themba Mvubu, got a life sentence, Buy Retin-A Without Prescription. Mvubu showed no signs of remorse throughout the entire hearing. When questioned by reporters, he muttered, “I am not sorry, buy Retin-A online cod,” as he was led away.

In a 2009 documentary on corrective rape, the men who are interviewed display strong opinions about women’s role in the South African society, and how a woman should be like. Kjøpe Retin-A på nett, köpa Retin-A online, One of them says, “If there is someone out there who is trying to rape those lesbians, me, I can appreciate. It is just to let them know, rx free Retin-A, they must be straight. Buy Retin-A Without Prescription, Once she gets raped by a guy, I think she will want to know a way which is nice.” He then on camera goes on to add how much the idea of homosexuality irritates and hurts him.

“We are fighting the effects of patriarchy world over, the idea that men get to decide how the world is, and how women are supposed to be in their world. Corrective rape is a vile manifestation of this. That said, Retin-A over the counter, many men in Africa do treat women with the highest respect,” says Antony Hebblethwaite, the founder of African Activist, a LGBT rights group.

Given the staggering number of rapes, South Africa has already been branded as the rape capital of the world, online Retin-A without a prescription. With such huge number of rapes each year in a country, the only way to combat the problem would be a deeper understanding of the motive that drives the perpetrators to commit such crimes, especially when men decide to rape lesbians for sexual correction as lesbian women are perceived as unnatural. Retin-A schedule, Yet, the South African courts and the justice ministry insist that motive is irrelevant, in crimes like corrective rape.

In an effort to raise awareness about corrective rape and also to push for concrete government actions, a handful of activists are now campaigning in South Africa. One of them is thirty-six-year-old Ndumie Funda, from Cape Town, Buy Retin-A Without Prescription. Ndumie is the director and founder of Luleki Sizwe, Retin-A canada, mexico, india, a non-profit organisation working for the victims of corrective rape.

Ndumie named Luleki Sizwe after her close friend Luleka Makiwane and her fiancée Nosizwe Nomsa Bizana.

“The organisation is named after two women who were very important to me,” says Ndumie. “Luleka was a strong and powerful woman. Order Retin-A no prescription, She was not ashamed of her sexuality, and tirelessly worked to stop violence against all women. Despite being so independent, she was raped by her cousin who was HIV positive. Buy Retin-A Without Prescription, After that, Luleka also became HIV positive, and died in 2005.”

Ndumie met her fiancée Nosizwe Nomas Bizana, through a common friend, “It was love at first sight. She was a beautiful woman, Retin-A dose. She was a strong-willed person who would not take any nonsense. She taught me to be humble, to stand up for my rights. Retin-A duration, We had a nice, respectful, and God-fearing relationship. Nosizwe was raped by five men, because of her sexuality, Buy Retin-A Without Prescription. As a result, she contracted cryptococcal meningitis, Retin-A used for, and died on December 16, 2007.”

Ndumie takes a minute to fight back her tears, “She was my princess.”

Talking about her own life, Retin-A price, Ndumie says, “I grew up in a strict Seventh Day Adventist family. From a very early age, I knew I was a feminist, and that I was a lesbian, Retin-A maximum dosage. It was hard for my family to understand and accept the fact that I did not choose my sexuality, I was born this way. It was only after I turned twenty-one and got a job, Taking Retin-A, I got more freedom. Buy Retin-A Without Prescription, Finally, I could stop pretending and be myself. During the apartheid regime, I was also involved in anti-apartheid activism, but my mother persuaded me to stop.”

Back to the question of corrective rape, she says, Retin-A results, “To understand South African men, one has to understand the culture we have here. Boys go to the bush, Retin-A pics, and come back as men. This transition from boyhood to manhood gives them the false belief that they can do whatever they want to do, and get away committing a crime even.”

After Nosizwe’s death, Ndumie felt the urge to put a stop to corrective rape, and help the victims – that was why Luleki Sizwe took shape, purchase Retin-A for sale, to protect and support the victims of corrective rape, “We provide corrective rape survivors with a safe-house and medical care, we help them and their families by providing them with healthy home-cooked meals and necessary home supplies. Retin-A trusted pharmacy reviews, We also run educational programs and computer classes. Our objective is not only to help the victims and educate them, but also to change the existing negative perception about lesbian, bisexual, and transsexual women in our society.”

Luleki Sizwe operates in the heart of the problem, as Ndumie puts it, “We believe that in our struggle against corrective rape, the change needs to happen in the areas where we live, Buy Retin-A Without Prescription. So we are not running away, instead we are based in the black townships, because we are trying to take ownership over the problems that affect our lives.”

Ndumie’s organisation has managed to open a little window of hope for all the survivors. On March 14, discount Retin-A, Luleki Sizwe, in cooperation with, submitted a total of 170, Retin-A description, 000 signatures collected from 163 countries, urging the South African government to put a stop to corrective rape.

This was in response to the unwillingness of the government, to prioritise this crime in its list of concerns. Previously in 2009, for example, Retin-A for sale, the national prosecution authority stated, “Whilst we are mindful of the fact that hate crimes – especially of a sexual nature – are rife, it is not something that the South African government has prioritised as a specific project.”

Just two years after that statement was made, After Retin-A, Ndumie got the opportunity to meet senior officials at the Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Development, “The meeting was great. It was very productive, and they have agreed to work with us. Buy Retin-A Without Prescription, Many victims who want to talk, need protection – we asked the ministry to provide them with that. We also asked for changes in the education curriculum, online buying Retin-A, so that children grow up learning that homosexuality is not abnormal. We also proposed that the plan includes mobile clinics, mobile police stations, Buy Retin-A from canada, and safe-houses for the victims. I am very impressed by their cooperation, and looking forward to a very constructive, tangible, progressive working relationship.”

The South African Human Rights Commission is also working on plans to deal with homophobia, Retin-A trusted pharmacy reviews. “There is an ongoing development of a national action plan which seeks to deal with discrimination and all other forms of intolerances. This plan will provide a blueprint on how the country will deal with issues of hate crimes, corrective rape being one of them,” says Vincent Mogae of the commission.

While these small progresses take place in South Africa, elsewhere in the continent, homophobia is reported frequently, Buy Retin-A Without Prescription. On March 12, in a BBC panel debate, Retin-A natural, on whether homosexuality is un-African, David Bahati, a member of the parliament of Uganda, explained why homosexuality is un-African, “It is inconsistent with the African belief in the continuity of family and clan.” In the same debate, online Retin-A without a prescription, Festus Mogae, the former president of Botswana, admitted that despite he was against the prosecution of homosexuals, he could not change the law fearing a loss in the elections. He was criticised for not legalising homosexuality in Botswana, during his ten-year-long term.

Religious fundamentalism is often cited as one of the key reasons behind the rise of homophobia in Africa. “Historically, Africa has always been the most friendly and tolerant continent. Homosexuality dates back to time before colonialism and the intervention of religion. Buy Retin-A Without Prescription, The arrival of colonialism and also the influence of religious fundamentalism have contributed to the debased argument for homophobia,” says Reverend Rowland Jide Macaulay, a Nigerian-Namibian LGBT activist and co-chair of Pan-African ILGA. “The homophobic religion is adverse and fundamental in nature, not pertained in the original concept of Islam, Judaism, and Christianity.”

Macaulay does not mince his words when it comes to homophobic pandering by government officials and religious leaders, “The fact that government officials and religious leaders condemn homosexuality continues to reinforce hatred, discrimination, prejudice, and ignorance, and these go down the length of society. It is sad to see gay and lesbian people today avoid the church and the mosque, that are now losing out on the opportunity to welcome all of God’s children.”

“Roots in religious fundamentalism and belief about African culture run very deep. Therefore, the reason for a growing tide of homophobia among people is probably a bit of both. Also, people are scared to speak out. Consider Uganda, for instance, Buy Retin-A Without Prescription. With the 2009 anti-homosexuality bill pending in the parliament, some HIV/AIDS service providers and even human rights organisations are afraid to speak out against the bill. When people speak out, there are often negative consequences,” says Antony Hebblethwaite of African Activist.

The struggle against corrective rape in South Africa is also a struggle against religious fundamentalism and patriarchy. Thanks to Ndumie Funda and other LGBT activists like her, the South African government is now more willing than before to protect its homosexual population, especially lesbian women. As Ndumie puts it, no woman in South Africa should endure the fate of the women she loved: Luleka and Nosizwe. Until that day comes, her fight goes on.


Syeda Lubna Mehrin is Editorial Assistant, Independent World Report.

In print: Independent World Report -- Issue 6/Spring 2011..

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[caption id="attachment_1963" align="alignnone" width="480" caption="Zoya Phan: Photo courtesy Burma Campaign UK."][/caption]

T Zovirax For Sale, he office phone rang. I answered it, listened for a moment, and passed it to Zoya. “Who is it?” she asked. “The prime minister, Online buying Zovirax, he wants to talk to you,” I answered.

It was at the height of the monk-led democracy uprising in September 2007. Gordon Brown, the British prime minister, cared passionately about Burma. He had already called the Chinese prime minister and the president of the United States, to discuss the crisis, Zovirax For Sale. And now he wanted to talk directly to someone from Burma. He called Zoya.

Zoya Phan’s journey from the remote jungles of eastern Burma to being consulted by the British prime minister, ordering Zovirax online, is a remarkable one.

Her parents were ethnic Karen, a minority ethnic group in Burma that has faced decades of persecution from the central government and successive dictatorships. Both were involved in the Karen struggle for freedom, democracy, and human rights. Online Zovirax without a prescription, Her father, Padoh Mahn Sha Lah Phan, was the general secretary of the Karen National Union (KNU), an organisation that represents the Karen people. Zovirax For Sale, Her mother, Nant Khin Shwe, had been a soldier in the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA), the armed wing of the KNU.

Padoh Mahn Sha had always hoped that his youngest daughter would work for the freedom of her people. He had named her after Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, a Russian freedom fighter in World War II. But, Zovirax brand name, as attacks against the Karen increased, it seemed that the father’s hopes might not be fulfilled.

Zoya was fourteen years old when she first had to flee for her life from the Burmese army. She and her family hid in the jungle for weeks before arriving in a refugee camp in Thailand. Thailand was a reluctant host to the refugees, forcing them to fence themselves in with barbed wire. The food provided by aid agencies was barely enough to live on, and there were no proper schools and educational opportunities, Zovirax For Sale. Zovirax gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, After a year, the family moved back into the Karen state in eastern Burma, hoping that they would be safe this time. The attack by the Burmese army came a few months later, without warning. Zoya was doing her maths homework when she heard the screaming whine of a mortar shell fired at her village.

Writing in her autobiography, she described the attack:

… I ran from the house and into chaos, Zovirax dose. There were almost a thousand people in the village and they were all running to find their families or grab their possessions. Zovirax For Sale, People were running in every direction, shouting and screaming... Children were crying, the crackle of gunfire rose above the uproar, and then there would come the boom of the mortar bombs landing, as if every glass window in the world had shattered at once. Buy no prescription Zovirax online, Sometimes there was just one, sometimes three – one after another. With everyone running they turned the dry earth into a suffocating dust that I could barely see through. I was terrified.

… The dust got so bad it was like night. I could not breathe, I could not see, my legs were aching with running, my lungs burning, my whole body shaking with fear, Zovirax For Sale. I just knew I had to keep going or I would be killed. If we slowed down my mother would yell “MOVE!” and we would run faster again.

… Another mortar bomb landed, scaring me so much I fell to the ground again, Zovirax price, coupon. It was so loud my ears popped and then I could not hear properly. “MOVE!” yelled my mother and again I was up and running. Zovirax For Sale, I wanted to cry but I knew I could not. I had to keep running.

Zoya and her family ended up back in a refugee camp in Thailand, seemingly with no hope for the future. But, Zovirax used for, it was now that the sense of determination and commitment, that has made her one of the highest profile exiled activists from Burma, came to the fore. She refused to be beaten. She decided she would get an education no matter how difficult, and would learn how she could do something to help her people, stop the abuses and crimes against the Karen.

Against the odds she secured a scholarship to study in the United Kingdom, order Zovirax no prescription, and there, for the first time, thousands of miles from her home, she was able to take action about the situation in her country.

The first demonstration she attended was outside the Burmese embassy in London, marking the sixtieth birthday of Aung San Suu Kyi. She was asked to compère the event, introducing speakers and leading the chanting, Zovirax For Sale. What is Zovirax, Dressed in full Karen costume she attracted the attention of journalists and photographers, and a few days later was asked to appear on the BBC, to talk about the situation in the Karen state.

Then, she joined Burma Campaign UK, an organisation promoting human rights in Burma. She was young and inexperienced but intensely driven, and did not hold back in pushing for Burma Campaign UK to do more about what was going on in ethnic areas.

There are two Burmas, canada, mexico, india. The one we hear about with Aung San Suu Kyi, thousands of political prisoners, and monks marching for freedom in Rangoon. The other Burma is the one where Zoya comes from, where ethnic groups have been facing military attacks for decades. Zovirax For Sale, The attacks on villages that Zoya experienced as a child were not unique, and carry on to this day. Zovirax wiki, More than 3500 villages in eastern Burma have been destroyed in the past fifteen years.

The origin of these attacks goes back decades, some would say centuries. Burma is a country of many different ethnicities, and before colonial rule, Burmese kings belonging to the Burman ethnic group, the largest in Burma, treated many of these ethnicities, Zovirax without prescription, including the Karen, as slaves and savages. A Karen could face death by crucifixion just for being able to read.

Under British colonial rule things improved significantly for ethnic minorities. They were given equal rights and promoted to positions in the government and the army, causing resentment from some members of the Burman ethnic group.

During World War II, Zovirax interactions, the Karen and other ethnic groups fought alongside the British against the Japanese army. The Burman-led independence movement initially sided with the Japanese, another factor causing friction between the Burman and ethnic minorities, Zovirax For Sale. The Karen had been promised their own state in return for their support to the British during the war. However, after the war, threats of popular unrest from the Burmese independence movement, unless it was handed over the whole of Burma, led the British to renege on that promise.

Following independence, Zovirax long term, communal violence was encouraged by elements in the Burmese government. The Karen were campaigning for an independent state, but were met with increasing violence and repression. Mortar shells were fired into Karen townships, and cars sped through Karen areas randomly spraying gunfire.

In 1948, Zovirax results, on Christmas Eve, a grenade was thrown into a church of Karen worshippers. Zovirax For Sale, Tit-for-tat attacks on villages increased as tensions grew. In January 1949, as attacks against the Karen increased, the offices of political leaders were raided, and many of them were arrested. The call went out for the Karen to take up arms to defend themselves, Zovirax duration. What has been described as the longest running civil war in the world, had begun.

Sixty years on, the situation is a long way from a civil war, as most people would think of one. The dictatorship introduced what it called a four cuts policy attempting to undermine support for armed resistance groups. The cuts consist of cutting recruits, intelligence, food and financial support, Zovirax For Sale. Zovirax over the counter, It is nothing less than the deliberate targeting of civilians. In the mid 1990s, attacks escalated as the new dictatorship, that took over Burma in 1988, used foreign trade and investment to double the size of the army and modernise its weaponry.

Today, the KNU only controls a small area of the Karen state while its armed wing is mainly engaged in trying to defend villages from attacks by the Burmese army.

In the Karen state and other parts of eastern Burma, rape is systematically used by the army as a weapon of war, Zovirax mg, even against girls as young as five. Hundreds of thousands of people have been used as slaves by the army. And humanitarian aid into the region is blocked. Zovirax For Sale, United Nations officials responsible for monitoring human rights in Burma have described the attacks as war crimes, and called for a UN Commission of Inquiry into war crimes and crimes against humanity.

The Karen and other ethnic groups see these attacks as part of a plan by the dictatorship to Burmanise the country. The dictatorship seeks to either subsume ethnic groups by banning teaching of their languages and history, and so slowly destroying their culture, Zovirax price, or to wipe them out by force if they resist.

It was the lack of humanitarian assistance for people fleeing attacks and hiding deep in the jungle, internally displaced persons (IDPs) as they are known, that Zoya decided should be the first issue she lobbied on, as a member of Burma Campaign UK. She had never forgotten the desperation and misery of hiding in the jungle with no food, medicine or shelter. She had seen children dying from treatable diseases because of the lack of medicines, Zovirax description, available on every high street in most countries.

“The denial of aid is as effective at killing my people as a bullet,” she said.

As the Burmese junta refuses to allow the UN or aid agencies into large parts of Karen and other ethnic states, the only way to deliver aid is through people from those areas crossing into neighbouring countries to collect aid and take it back, known as cross-border aid. As the British government refused to fund this kind of aid, Buy generic Zovirax, Zoya led a high profile campaign for a change of policy, calling for a doubling of aid to Burma, and funding for cross-border aid. She spoke before the parliament and in the media, winning people over with the force of her argument.

Zoya was invited to speak at the annual conference of the Conservative Party, then the main opposition party, now in the government, Zovirax For Sale. Organisers were concerned when they met her, minutes before she was due to deliver her speech. This small and softly spoken woman, just twenty-five-year-old but looking much younger, where can i cheapest Zovirax online, seemed so shy. Had they made a mistake inviting her. How would she cope speaking after experienced politicians, and addressing thousands of people at a conference being televised live. Zovirax For Sale, They need not have worried. That day, Rx free Zovirax, she won a standing ovation for her speech, described by some delegates as the best and most passionate of the entire conference.

The speech raised Zoya’s profile, and increasingly she was being interviewed by exiled Burmese radio stations which broadcast back into Burma. She became a role model for young people inspired by her activism, and was admired by many Karen who had not had such a high profile voice in the international arena before.

But, while she saw that her profile was helping her raise awareness and ensuring access to media and politicians, it also made her uncomfortable, where can i find Zovirax online. She did not want the focus to be on herself, but instead on the issues. The increased profile also came with a price, as she learned that her name was now on a regime hit list which had been intercepted by the opposition.

She remained undaunted. Already there had been one attempt on her life, when someone had been sent to her home in Thailand with orders to assassinate her father, but failing that to either kill or rape Zoya, Zovirax For Sale. The plot did not succeed.

The campaign for a doubling of British aid to Burma, Zovirax alternatives, in the form of cross-border aid, received a strong boost when the International Development Committee of the British parliament issued a strong report backing the demands of the campaign and called for a change of policy. The government finally capitulated. In addition to doubling Burma’s aid budget the UK started funding life-saving cross-border aid, and increased funding for refugees in Thailand. Thousands of miles from those who she had left behind, Zoya had found a way to help them.

By now she was writing her autobiography, online buying Zovirax hcl. Zovirax For Sale, Having seen how through her own story people had come to learn about her homeland, she saw the book as being a window into Burma, “If my story is what it takes to get people to take action then it is worth writing.”

In January 2008, Zoya took a delegation of MPs and journalists back to the Thailand-Burma border to meet refugees and political activists, even sneaking back into Burma to meet the IDPs. She was reunited with her father for the first time in four years. He was so proud to see the work she was doing. His dreams for her had been fulfilled.

But, just days after her return to the UK, tragedy struck her life again.

On the morning of February 14, Zovirax canada, mexico, india, 2008, she received the call: “Your father has been shot.” She did not have a moment to grieve or take in the shock. Her father was a respected and much loved leader who had dedicated his life to the struggle. Now, he had been assassinated by agents of the Burmese junta, Zovirax For Sale. Journalists were calling Zoya within minutes, interviewing her even as she cried.

Travelling with Zoya to Thailand for the funeral of Padoh Mahn Sha is an experience I will never forget. Rarely does one witness such courage and bravery.

I had been expecting that her arrival in the Thai town of Mae Sot, where her father had lived, Zovirax steet value, would be a chance for her to grieve with family and friends, and for them to comfort a young woman who had just lost her father. The opposite was the case, as many were looking to her for comfort and encouragement. She understood that. Zovirax For Sale, She had been ready for it, and that is what she did.

She buried her personal grief underneath her sense of personal responsibility. Buy cheap Zovirax, There were no more tears. The loss of her father was not just her own, it was a loss to the entire Karen people. It would demoralise them greatly that the dictatorship had succeeded in killing their leader. She knew she had to be strong for them.

It was extraordinary to witness how people responded to her. In Karen culture, elders are respected more than youth, and men more than women, but here were elderly men, soldiers, and political leaders, looking to her for hope and support, Zovirax For Sale. I saw battle-hardened soldiers who have fought for decades in the jungles of Burma break down in tears, their head on her shoulder, Zovirax no prescription, not the other way round.

Wherever we went people looked to Zoya for encouragement and support, and she never failed to provide it, spending time talking to people, encouraging them, and maybe even recounting a funny story about her father to make people smile.

The dictatorship had used two Karen men, No prescription Zovirax online, from a group which had split from the KNU, to carry out the assassination. Even in their grief, Zoya and her family sought unity rather than revenge. They issued a statement to Karen soldiers belonging to this group saying: “Come back to us, come back to the KNU. Let us be one family again.”

The entire time we were on the border, Zovirax recreational, the security situation was tense. Zovirax For Sale, We knew that hit squads remained in town, and were planning to kill more pro-democracy leaders. Just weeks before, when Zoya visited the border, there had been two attempts to assassinate her and her father.

Despite her family suffering so much for their involvement in the struggle, the death of her father, After Zovirax, and her own life in danger, there was never a moment she considered giving up.

Her determination grew, stronger now as she and her brothers and sisters vowed that they would carry on their father’s work, and not allow what he fought for to die with him. They set up the Phan Foundation in memory of their parents, funding projects to fight poverty, promote education, order Zovirax no prescription, defend human rights, and protect the Karen culture.

Zoya has become one of the highest profile political exiles from Burma. Her autobiography, Little daughter, was published worldwide to critical acclaim. Zovirax description, And, in a new role as International Coordinator for Burma Campaign UK, she has travelled the world meeting presidents, prime ministers, and celebrities. In the past year, she has been made a TED fellow, and a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum, and is regularly interviewed by the international media.

An effective and articulate speaker, she has the ability to touch people emotionally, but making it clear to her audience that she does not want sympathy, she wants change, Zovirax For Sale. Introduced at an event as a woman who would steal your heart, Zoya came onto the stage and stated boldly, buy Zovirax without prescription, “I do not want your heart, I want you to take action.”

At a Downing Street meeting, Gordon Brown declared that the British government was doing everything it could to help the situation in Burma. The girl from the jungle of eastern Burma was not to be awed by the charms of meeting the British prime minister. Without hesitation she replied, Order Zovirax from United States pharmacy, “Thank you Mr. Prime Minister. We do appreciate your support, but, actually there is more that you can do,” and then went on to list what she thought he ought to be doing.

While she has a remarkable ability to reach the international community, she also knows it is important to encourage other people from Burma, Zovirax without a prescription. She does not just speak about the horrific human rights abuses taking place, and the need for international action, but also about a vision of what Burma could be like, and should be like.

“I dream of a day when all the people of Burma can live side by side in peace, different but equal,” she says. “We can not just talk about what is wrong with Burma, we also have to talk about the kind of country and society we want, when we get democracy.” Until that day comes, Zoya Phan remains relentless in pushing for more action from the international community.


Mark Farmaner is Director, Burma Campaign UK.

In print: Independent World Report -- Issue 5, September 2010.

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[caption id="attachment_1621" align="alignnone" width="480" caption="Alaina Podmorow (Centre): Photo by Jamie Podmorow."][/caption]

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Alaina Podmorow – now thirteen – knew what her choice was. She contacted Canadian Women for Women in Afghanistan, order Atenolol online c.o.d, and asked if she could join the organisation. Comprar en línea Atenolol, comprar Atenolol baratos, She was welcomed with open arms. Thus, Little Women for Little Women in Afghanistan was born – a humanitarian organisation of young girls in Canada, buying Atenolol online over the counter, trying to help the girls in Afghanistan. The organisation raises funds in order to support female education in Afghanistan, with the motto: Education = Peace.

Three years on, Little Women for Little Women has raised thousands of dollars for its cause, by hosting events all across Canada, Atenolol For Sale. Where can i cheapest Atenolol online, What started as a twenty-member team is now growing into a national movement. In partnership with Canadian Women for Women in Afghanistan, the organisation supports a teacher training project and an orphanage in Kabul; a number of schools and a village library.

And, Atenolol long term, it all started the day Alaina Podmorow became a humanitarian.

In her own words, Atenolol alternatives, “I am the founder of Little Women for Little Women in Afghanistan. I founded this organisation three years ago, when I was nine years old, Atenolol schedule. In the fall of 2006, Atenolol maximum dosage, I found out that the privileges that I have, other girls in our world do not get. Atenolol For Sale, I learned about this when I went with my mom to listen to journalist, author and human rights activist, Sally Armstrong speak about Afghanistan. She told stories about the terrible things that happen to little girls in Afghanistan, Atenolol treatment. I was so moved. Atenolol australia, uk, us, usa, It was so upsetting to me that these girls were not able to exercise their rights. They were not able to go to school and sometimes they did not go to school because they were afraid they would be hurt or even killed.”

Sharmin Afsana interviewed Alaina Podmorow.


Founder of Little Women for Little Women and a thirteen-year-old soccer player – how do you draw the balance?

People ask me that question a lot. I am really passionate about my work with Little Women, but, I know that I am just thirteen and there has to be a balance, Atenolol For Sale. My schedule is really well planned, Atenolol used for, so that I can do the things I love and have fun doing. Atenolol overnight, I do miss a lot of school, but, I have lots of homework and I always make sure I am caught up.

I do sports all year round because I just love it, Atenolol photos, and sometimes Little Women get really busy, Atenolol price, coupon, but, I know that as soon as I finish I can go and take time and just be a kid. My usual day is like this – I get up, Atenolol samples, have breakfast and check and answer my emails, Atenolol trusted pharmacy reviews, then, I am off to school. Right now I have basketball and soccer, where can i order Atenolol without prescription, and I have just been invited to be on a youth editing team for an author who is writing a kid’s book about Afghanistan. Atenolol For Sale, We have our big gala event coming up on April 17, so I am working more than usual but soon it will slow down and it will be much more relaxed. Is Atenolol safe, We will probably take a family vacation in the beginning of summer.

Little Women for Little Women – how did it start?

In the fall of 2006, I attended a speech by my inspiration, journalist and human rights activist Sally Armstrong, Atenolol use. She told stories about the human rights violations that were happening to women and girls in Afghanistan, Generic Atenolol, especially the right to education. At the end of Sally’s speech, she said the worst thing you can do is nothing, where can i buy Atenolol online. It was right then that I realised that I had to do something and even if it was small, Atenolol results, it would make a difference. That is when I started Little Women for Little Women in Afghanistan.

I read somewhere that there is an interesting story behind your logo.

The logo is kind of a funny story, Atenolol For Sale. I knew I wanted to make a symbol for Little Women, and so one day I just started doodling flowers all over a page, purchase Atenolol. In all different shapes and sizes. Atenolol from mexico, But, I kept repeating this one particular flower. My mom walked by me and looked at my paper and said, Atenolol interactions, “That is so beautiful, Atenolol pharmacy, it is a flower, but it also looks like a dove being set free.” I knew right then, that was the symbol for us, Atenolol brand name. Atenolol For Sale, I coloured it red black and green because that is the colour of the Afghan flag. People recognise that flower now as our symbol, Discount Atenolol, so that is pretty neat.

When you heard stories about the young girls in Afghanistan, what moved you so much that you decided to act?

Sally Armstrong told so many stories that night about girls in Afghanistan, who were just like me and my friends, purchase Atenolol online no prescription. But, Atenolol natural, instead of going to school and playing with their friends, they were forced to stay home. They had no freedom and they were so afraid of the unknown, Atenolol no prescription. It just felt so wrong to me. It was Sally’s words, “The worst thing you can do is nothing,” that made me realise right then, that nothing would change unless we all took action, Atenolol For Sale. Atenolol forum, That is why I decided to start raising money to educate girls in Afghanistan. Even though it may only make a small difference, it still would make change.

Have you ever been to Afghanistan, my Atenolol experience, or any plans?

No, Buy Atenolol online no prescription, I have never been, but, I do want to some day, Atenolol from canadian pharmacy. Right now it is too dangerous for me to go, Atenolol from canada, and I would be risking the Afghan girl’s safety as well. I will go when it is safe to visit.

How many of your friends are involved in LW4LW?

There are about twenty girls in the first team of Little Women and they have been members for 3 1/2 years now. Atenolol For Sale, They are all my friends, and I have made so many new friends with the teams that have started all across Canada.

How is your family supporting your work?

My family is always supporting me. My dad and brother help as much they can and are always supporting and encouraging me, online buying Atenolol. My mom is always by my side helping me out. About Atenolol, She looks after all the grown-up things about the organisation like administration and arranging my calendar and speaking trips. She attends all my speeches and is at each event we hold. Without her amazing help, encouragement and wisdom, I would be not where I am today, Atenolol For Sale. My mom is truly one of my inspirations and I love her so much!

Education = Peace – so, effects of Atenolol, why do you think education will change the lives of Afghan women and bring peace?

That is a simple one. I believe that once everyone is educated, peace can be achieved. When you are educated, you become a stronger person. Illiteracy leaves people afraid of the unknown because they do not understand and they can not read to find out what is going on and make their own opinions. Atenolol For Sale, When you are educated, you understand that people are all the same, and they deserve the same rights, and that it is possible to achieve peace.

The education projects you are raising funds for - which areas in Afghanistan they are being carried out and how?

We have a teacher training project we support in Kabul, as well as an orphanage. We support schools in Jalalabad, Kabul area and we support a village library project that actually is run by the villagers who build their own libraries. This project is a great example of how you can help someone to help themselves.

These projects are in place because of Canadian Women for Women in Afghanistan, and we send 100% of everything we raise to them. They send 100% of all donations to the projects. I am working on a project to introduce a physical education program for girls in Afghanistan. This is important because it will improve their self esteem, cardiovascular health, and it will be fun too.

Do little women in Afghanistan know about the little women in Canada?

Absolutely yes, Atenolol For Sale. We have made friends, through letters, and we feel we are connected to them and they to us.

Where do you see LW4LW and yourself, five years from now?

You know, I do not really think about that. I try to just think about now and right now. I feel that I will continue until everyone has a chance for an education. I have done it for three years now, and I can not imagine not doing it, or not working to help restore human rights.

If you are given the power to change one thing in our world, what would you do?

This might make some adults mad at me. But, if I had the power to change one thing in the world it would be to change the way some of our leaders and academics think. I think some adults sometimes get caught up in thinking this side is right or that side is right and sadly when everyone is spending all their time and energy fighting about who is right, kids are dying, girls are getting raped and sold off as brides as young as eights years old and getting acid thrown on their faces just because they are walking towards the school.

I am not saying that people should not stand by what they believe in, but I think that if everybody could put all their energy that they use for fighting and put it towards raising money to build schools or train teachers or buy food for starving kids or creating awareness of the importance of education, we would change our world and create global peace.

That is what I dream of accomplishing.


Sharmin Afsana is Managing Editor, Independent World Report.

Online: More information about Little Women for Little Women in Afghanistan.

In print: Independent World Report -- Issue 4/April 2010.


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[caption id="attachment_1496" align="alignnone" width="480" caption="Parvin Ardalan: Photo by Arash Ashoorinia."][/caption]

L Proscar For Sale, aunched in August 2006, the One Million Signatures campaign is a courageous challenge to the repressive theocracy of Iran that now enforces a gender apartheid against its women. Iranian women's rights activists aim to collect one million signatures in support of changing discriminatory laws against women. The campaign that has already received wide international support, is constantly under attack from the Iranian regime that sees women's freedom as a political threat to its very existence.

One of the architects of this grass-roots movement is Parvin Ardalan -- feminist activist and journalist. Ardalan, Where can i buy cheapest Proscar online, along with others, established Markaz-e farhangi-ye zanan (Women’s Cultural Centre), that has become a crucial instrument in crafting opinion, analysis and documentation on women issues in Iran. Since 2005, the Markaz has published Iran's first online magazine on women's rights, buy Proscar from canada, Zanestan, with Ardalan as its editor.

In 2007, Ardalan was sentenced to three years in prison by the Iranian regime for threatening national security. The same year, she was awarded the Olof Palme prize, for her struggle for equal rights for men and women in Iran.

"Despite persecution, threats and harassment, Parvin Ardaln has been persistent in her struggle and never compromised her ideals, Proscar For Sale. Through constantly more ingenious methods, Purchase Proscar online, she and her fellow sisters have managed to increase the support for equal rights. The ongoing campaign for a million signatures against discrimination is an excellent example. Their intensive work deserves international recognition as a path to democracy and peace in this region of turbulence and conflict," the Stockholm-based secretariat of Olof Palme Memorial Fund noted in a statement.

Haideh Daragahi interviewed Parvin Ardalan, in Stockholm in January 2010.


Let us begin with the One Million Signatures campaign. How did it start and why, Proscar alternatives, and how does it work?

This campaign began three years ago, after a gathering of a group of activists at Haft-e-Tir square in Tehran. Proscar For Sale, We had announced the meeting and invited all men and women to gather at the square. Before the programme had started, they arrested two of the coordinators. Taking Proscar, The meeting took place in the sense that it was the police that carried it out. They were stationed there an hour before the announced time. We could not stay there even for five minutes. They arrested seventy people, Proscar For Sale. Five of them were sent to court, and one of the participants is still in jail. They poured into my house, Proscar interactions, but, I and another activist they were after, were out by then.

We were a group of five coordinators. Many among us were against the meeting and did not come. Cheap Proscar, Some two thousand people came. Proscar For Sale, The meeting was announced by individual activists rather than by the groups, because the groups were under pressure and group activity was risky. After that, we arrived at the conclusion that we had two choices: either to give up, or, to find other methods of street action. We wanted both to involve people in issues related to women and to engage in street activity, Proscar wiki, because this kind of work allowed us to break out of the closed atmosphere of work within the group – one is seen and has an audience.

We, who had announced the gathering, were under pressure while we were also looking for solutions that would involve all the groups and put forward all the demands that the women had. The initiator of this discussion was the Women’s Cultural Centre, Proscar treatment, that I and some others had founded. In our discussions, we reached the point that we can benefit from the experience of women elsewhere and use those experiences as a model. We knew about Morocco, and decided to adopt their project for one million signatures by adapting it to our specific situation.

Women in Morocco had carried out the campaign for one million signatures, but, they had the political support of the Moroccan king against the Islamists, and even then it took ten years, Proscar For Sale. Since we had no state support, we could only take our support from the people. We based our activity for collecting signatures on networking and face-to-face encounters, real brand Proscar online. Our audience was not only women – they were all men and women over eighteen.

We were going to use the pamphlet called The effect of laws on the lives of women that we had prepared for the demonstration. Before the demonstration, since we knew we may be arrested, we dropped the pamphlets into people’s mailboxes. Proscar For Sale, Some one thousand pamphlets had already been distributed in this way. Proscar recreational, We had come to the conclusion that the distribution of the pamphlets was good as a relatively risk-free way of expressing our goals. It was an effective way of raising feminist awareness in relation to legal discrimination, as the pamphlet dealt with major discriminatory arrangements in the existing legal structure.

Marriage: The first step a woman must take in marriage, according to the existing law, is to satisfy the condition of the father’s consent. For marriage, Proscar dose, virgin women must have their father or paternal grandfather’s permission. With the courts’ permission, a father can marry his daughter, even before the age of thirteen, Proscar pictures, to a seventy-year-old man.

Divorce: According to the law, divorce is the exclusive right of a man, and a man can divorce his wife whenever he pleases.

Multiple wives for men: A man can have four aghdi (permanent) wives and infinite sighehi (temporary) wives.

Age of criminal responsibility: The age of criminal responsibility for girls is nine lunar years and for boys fifteen lunar years.

Citizenship rights:According to Iranian law, the citizenship of a woman does not transfer to her child. If your father is Iranian, you too are considered Iranian, Proscar For Sale. But, having an Iranian mother does not make you an Iranian citizen.

Inheritance: According to civil law, online Proscar without a prescription, after the death of the father and mother, sons receive two times as much in inheritance as daughters.

Honour killings:Among the discriminatory laws, one can note the law that gives a man permission to kill his wife whenever he sees her in bed with another man, and the law will not punish this man.

Bearing witness: There are some crimes in which women can not testify. Proscar mg, In the cases where a female witness is accepted, the testimony of two women equals that of one man. Then, other discriminatory laws like compulsory prescribed dress for women and stoning.

Since we were going to collect signatures, we planned to adopt the face-to-face method. Based on what we had written in the pamphlet, buy Proscar online cod, we prepared a single page statement. Proscar For Sale, We produced this statement when we worked for collecting signatures and asked the person to read it. Then, we would give them the pamphlet, enter into a discussion, Proscar maximum dosage, and ask them to sign. We were interested in tangible issues. In speaking to people, we talked of our own problems in relation to these laws, so that in the course of the average twenty minutes it took us to talk to each person, they would feel free to talk back, Proscar results. This would raise their consciousness, and encourage them to take part in the activity. We were happy if they signed, and we did not loose anything if they did not sign, because, they were given the pamphlet, that they would take home, with more information.

This process has been going on over the last three years, Proscar For Sale. The initiators were the middle-class activists of the women’s movement, but before long, Herbal Proscar, the activists of the workers and students movements also got involved. Since collecting signatures took place in public spaces and work places, it broke the class barrier. We collected signatures in prisons, courtrooms, undergrounds, ordering Proscar online, buses and collective taxis.

The more we went on, the more intense became the attack on the campaign. Altogether, some sixty people were arrested and sent to court. Two people have been arrested recently on the charge of acting against national security.

Proscar For Sale, Our work consists of consciousness raising and advocating rights for women, through networking and horizontal form of cooperation. Proscar pharmacy, We are not women only, there are men who work with us. We are not based only in Tehran, but, in many cities and smaller towns, as well as abroad, buy generic Proscar. The campaign has tapped new energies and potentials among young and creative participants.

How do you see the role of religion and politics, in the oppression of women in Iran – how much of this is religion and how much is politics?

Before the 1979 revolution, the condition of women was far from ideal, but, Proscar blogs, it was comparatively better. We had a patriarchal structure with discrimination based on tradition. Many laws were rooted in religion, Proscar For Sale. The new government increased discrimination by using Islam and adjustment to Islamic dictates. For example, the family support law, allowing women to turn to special courts for divorce and custody of children, order Proscar from United States pharmacy, was passed before the revolution, but it was not enough. These family courts were annulled with the argument that they were un-Islamic. Religion entered the state. Proscar For Sale, It was said that these new laws are based on religion and therefore non-negotiable. Proscar online cod, In practice, women were discriminated against, both from a governmental and a religious point of view.

What happened to women in Iran, was an anti-women strategy enforced in the name of religion through the power of the state. Religion, with its roots in culture, Proscar description, was an asset to them and the Islamic Republic implemented the interpretation of religion that is utterly against women. Freedom of dress, for example, was taken away, Buy Proscar online no prescription, and age of marriage for girls was reduced to nine. These discriminatory measures promoted a view of women as inferior and subordinate – a view sanctioned by religion. The combination of religion and state was a combination of religious and political discrimination against women, Proscar For Sale. As the basis for this attitude on the social level was laid out, many men kept quiet about this enormous discrimination. The first victims of the religious state were women living with patriarchal politics, and patriarchal religion.

It looks like, Proscar duration, the Iranian regime sees women’s freedom as a political threat – something that fuels the ongoing gender apartheid there. Why is that so?

One reason is that the policies of governments before the revolution, in relation to women, were presented as Western. Proscar photos, Reza Shah – the father of the Shah – took the veil off women’s heads by force, since this was not what all the women wanted in the 1930s. Proscar For Sale, The policies of his son, by bringing more women into the job market and secularising a number of laws, were regarded by the Khomeini regime as a symbol of modernisation and an effort to Westernise Iranian society.

The Islamic government tried to bring about change by resorting to de-Westernisation for which women were the vehicle. In other words, its opposition to the Shah was symbolised in the appearance of women. The idea of man as the legally superior sex, and the head of the household as well as the person to whom the woman should submit sexually, Proscar schedule, was transferred to the political sphere and the role of the state.

Thus, just as the man is in control of the woman, the state is the keeper of this Islamic symbol by controlling the woman’s body by enforcing the veil, gender separation in schools and universities, Discount Proscar, on the streets and means of public transport.

If this control is threatened then, the assumption is, it is a threat to Islam, and by extension, to the Islamic state. Any incursion on this control is seen as a threat, Proscar from canada. Just as according to Iranian law the man is the measure for humanity, the woman is the measure for discrimination. The sexualisation of politics was from the very beginning the strategy of the Islamic Republic.

A part of your answer actually brings us to the next question I have – how much of the Iranian movement for freedoms and rights is influenced by the West, as the regime always allege influence of alien culture or foreign hand?

The accusation of being linked to the West has always been a political ploy to restrain social and civil activists, Proscar For Sale. I believe that what started and developed after the 1979 revolution, and made the voice of the Iranian society heard internationally, Is Proscar addictive, was the result of the work of the activists of civil rights movements. The resilience of these movements in the face of accusations and their refusal to surrender, is in itself evidence of the fact that what is happening in Iran is independent.

How does the women’s movement in Iran contribute towards the movement for democracy and rights. Also, how important is international solidarity in this struggle?

The women’s movement has been one of the most important aspects of the democratic movement in Iran. It has contributed in its method of networking and decentralised leadership and activity, effects of Proscar, by serving as a model for the ongoing movement overall. Proscar For Sale, Also, by creating international support through reciprocal solidarity.

Our campaign includes activists from the working class movement and the student movement, just as we consider it our duty to support these other movements. This pattern has been implemented on the international level in support networks for the women’s movement. This turns solidarity not into a favour but into a duty.

Using the model of horizontal movements, we place ourselves in an extended network in which helping the other is also self-help. Buy Proscar no prescription, Support for the Iranian movement is not helping the Iranians alone. It is helping the supporter as well. In a globalised world, the positive and the negative outcome of the events in Iran has global dimensions, and is by no means limited to Iran.

There is an interesting campaign going on right now, as male activists are donning headscarves and posting their photos online to belittle the regime, in response to the arrest of a fellow activist, Proscar For Sale. How do you see this Be a Man campaign?

To begin with, the Islamic Republic forced the veil on women by using the argument that it is the symbol of respect for women and maintains their integrity. When it wanted to humiliate a student activist it photographed him wearing the veil, and distributed that photo to somehow discredit him, Proscar price, coupon. By so doing, it discredited its previous explanation for the veil. By belittling womanhood and scorning men who wear women’s clothes it exposed its real view of women, indicating that womanhood is inferiority.

The reaction of the men, Discount Proscar, who put the veil on, questioned the veil as a symbol, and male superiority. Proscar For Sale, It increased the solidarity of men with women. It showed that they no longer consider womanhood as humiliating. It was a step taken a bit late, but their action showed that the younger generation not only do not consider womanhood as humiliating, comprar en línea Proscar, comprar Proscar baratos, they are proud of it. This is a far cry from the reaction after the imposition of the veil thirty years ago, when a small number of men protested but the majority went so far as to condone it. After years of work by the activists in the women’s movement and the increase in society’s level of feminist consciousness, Kjøpe Proscar på nett, köpa Proscar online, such a reaction by men signals a qualitative change in male attitude.

Their reaction is important and admirable. After the event, a number of women’s rights activists issued a statement in which they point out that neither womanhood, nor men who wear women’s clothes, such as some homosexual men, are inferior, Proscar For Sale. For transvestites have been humiliated not only by the regime but also by different sections of the society at large.

Where do you see Iran five years from now. In terms of general politics and freedom for Iranian women.

We live between hope and fear. It is not easy to predict. As an activist of the women’s movement, since I believe in resistance and believe that thirty years of women’s resistance to the Islamic Republic has resulted in a gradual opening, Proscar dangers, I am hopeful. Proscar For Sale, Considering the recent development and the role of women in it as prime advocates for freedom and equality, I can say that the continuation of this process can result in a free and equal society. Iran has the chance to experience real democracy and women hold great resource and potential for such a society.

As a woman and as a journalist, you belong to two of the most threatened groups in today’s Iran. How do you cope?

Living in an oppressive society like Iran requires creative methods and belief in our power as politically marginal forces. This is needed to keep sparks of hope alive and to continue. The situation requires new, democratic, and anti-discriminatory strategies. Not easy, but people who live under these circumstances, have tried to discover and implement these methods, Proscar For Sale. Being a woman and a journalist, who wants to bring about change and make herself heard, is costly. I am aware of this and prepared to pay the price. I am so glad that idealism is still alive in us.


Haideh Daragahi – scholar and rights activist – was a professor of English literature at University of Tehran, at the time of the Islamic revolution in Iran. Since 1984, she is based in Sweden.

In print: Independent World Report — Issue 3/February 2010..

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[caption id="attachment_705" align="alignnone" width="480" caption="Irom Sharmila Chanu/Daughter of peace: Artwork by Musrat Reazi."]Artwork by Musrat Reazi.[/caption]

N Viagra For Sale, ot a drop of water or morsel of food has passed through her lips in these years. Why the thirty-seven-year old poet, Irom Sharmila, has been fasting for the past ten years. Through this epic fast, she is demanding an end to violence in her homeland: the state of Manipur, situated in the Himalayan ranges of northeastern India, doses Viagra work. Over the past three decades, insurgents and security forces have established a culture of guns, bombs, and terror here. Ordinary civilians are frequently caught in the crossfire. Security forces in Manipur are empowered under the Armed Forces Special Powers Act – promulgated in almost the entire state since 1980 – to shoot or arrest people and raid premises upon mere suspicion of threat to law and order, Viagra For Sale. Viagra from canadian pharmacy, No legal proceedings can be instituted against armed forces personnel, except by sanction of the central government.

Sharmila began an indefinite fast after ten innocent civilians were gunned down by the paramilitary Assam Rifles, at a bus stop in Malom village in November 2000. Sensitive to the plight of her people and shaken by the atrocity, she took a unilateral decision to undertake a fast demanding the withdrawal of the draconian AFSPA. “I am doing my bounden duty... I am a rational being, Viagra schedule, acting on my conscience,” she says.

In November 2006, when I first met her in New Delhi, it was simply to pay homage to a person of great courage, who had been engaged in a public, After Viagra, political fast for an unbelievable six years. Viagra For Sale, She was detained in a ward at the AIIMS hospital, where visitors were allowed. I found her a reflective, friendly person – eager to converse.

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The chief minister of Manipur, Okram Ibobi Singh, visited her in New Delhi and requested her to give up the fast, so did the Indian parliament, Viagra For Sale. Before returning to Imphal – the capital of Manipur – in March 2007, Sharmila reiterated, “I will continue my fast until the AFSPA is withdrawn.” Upon her return to Manipur, she was immediately arrested and sentenced to judicial custody, then released in March 2008 and soon rearrested, Viagra maximum dosage. This drama was repeated in March 2009.

Interred in the security wing of Imphal’s JN Hospital, she reads extensively, writes, and practices yoga. Permission to visit her requires an arduous process of applications to various government offices. About Viagra, Her family home is near the hospital, but family members are hardly able to visit her. Viagra For Sale, Sharmila is the youngest of nine siblings in the family. Her mother, Irom Shakhi Devi, has not met her these ten years. “The day the act is withdrawn, I will eat rice from my mother’s hands, buy Viagra no prescription,” Sharmila told me.

It is easy, when in Manipur, to imagine it as a whole world: self-contained, a state apart. Imphal valley, Canada, mexico, india, with the capital at its centre, is surrounded, in what seems to be a perfect circle, by distant hills. This region was a sovereign kingdom with unbroken dynastic rule from 33 AD to 1891, until the British rulers of India established suzerainty.

Since 1949, there was public discontent over what many viewed as a forced merger with the Indian union, online buying Viagra. People were uneasy about being reduced to a tiny, neglected fragment of the big nation, Viagra For Sale. A handful of rebels refused to cooperate with the union, raising the demand for independence. The Indian state sent in security forces, with a mandate to crush the insurgency. From 1960 onwards, Viagra for sale, parts of Manipur were declared disturbed areas, and eventually the AFSPA was imposed.

Apunba Lup, a network of thirty-two civil society organisations, and Meira Paibis, thousands of elderly, working-class women activists, demanded withdrawal of the AFSPA, Viagra pharmacy, arguing that atrocities by the armed forces actually motivated angry young men to join underground groups. Initially, several insurgent groups helped the poor, even earning a Robin Hood image.

Official policy treats insurgency as a law and order problem. Viagra For Sale, Under the AFSPA, security forces have been granted powers for internal security management on par with defence against external aggression. In effect, Viagra no prescription, the Indian state is fighting a low-intensity war against citizens it considers anti-national. The meaning of internal security has shifted and changed, becoming the exact opposite of the original intent. The people the state is supposed to defend are now perceived as the threat that it tries to extinguish. The concept of human security is completely missing.

The AFSPA suspends people’s fundamental rights, contravening the forty-fourth amendment to the Indian constitution. International humanitarian laws do not countenance such suspension of fundamental rights, Viagra For Sale. The protection of life, Viagra long term, liberty and property is non-derogable under the Geneva conventions of 1949 and 1960. Insurgents and national liberation movements are admitted into international humanitarian law, and are bound by the same standards.

The United Nations Human Rights Council has noted that the AFSPA is incompatible with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, ratified by India in 1979. Many members of the council have expressed shock at the existence of such legislation in India. Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, Section 4 of the AFSPA awards the armed forces the licence to kill, and is incompatible with Articles 6, 9 and 14 of the covenant. Viagra For Sale, The covenant provides that “any person whose rights or freedoms are violated shall have an effective remedy, determined by competent judicial, administrative or legislative authorities” – a provision disregarded by the AFSPA.

The violence in Manipur is part of a pattern of chronic neglect, maldevelopment and economic exploitation. “It is in order to intensify [economic] exploitation that the Indian state physically dominates in Manipur. This is the real reason that the army and paramilitary forces are sent in here,” Nobo Kishore – Director of the Centre for Social Development, an Imphal-based organisation – once explained to me.

The developmental toll of militarism is a serious human rights issue, online Viagra without a prescription. India allocates approximately fifteen percent of budgetary expenditure to defence, and far less to education, health or welfare. Defence expenditure partly works against the interests of ordinary citizens, by inflicting human rights atrocities on the civilian population.

In July 2004, Viagra street price, Assam Rifles personnel brutally raped Thangjam Manorama in her home in Bamon Kampu village. Her disfigured body was later dumped by the roadside, Viagra For Sale. Thousands of citizens, led by Meira Paibis, protested against her rape and murder. Assigning dishonour to military personnel who commit heinous crimes, and the state that protects them, inverting the usual association of dishonour with women’s bodies, online buy Viagra without a prescription, twelve elderly Manipuri activists disrobed in public outside the Assam Rifles headquarters in Imphal, shouting “Indian army, rape us. Take our flesh.”

These women adopted this extremely difficult form of protest, orchestrating their rage, Buying Viagra online over the counter, challenging impunity granted to security forces, and shaming the state into acknowledging culpability.

The Indian government set up a high-level committee to review the AFSPA, but ignored its report. Submitted in 2005, the report recommended withdrawal of the act, on the ground that it “has become a symbol of oppression, an object of hate and an instrument of discrimination and high-handedness.”

Indian home minister, comprar en línea Viagra, comprar Viagra baratos, P Chidambaram, has recently hinted that certain changes in the AFSPA are being planned. Viagra For Sale, This is due to the protests in Manipur, and in other parts where it is operational, particularly Jammu and Kashmir. While alterations or even withdrawal of the AFSPA will not automatically solve the present crisis in Manipur, it would indicate that politicians are finally willing to respond to democratic dissent, and attend to issues being raised by the common person.

Irom Sharmila often refers to her fast as a spiritual act, Cheap Viagra no rx, “My stand is for the sake of truth, and I believe truth succeeds eventually. God gives me courage... How shall I explain it, we all come here with a task and we come here alone.” Her task involves influencing and changing people, society and politics.

The Buddha frequently kept long fasts, though his Middle Way did not enjoin harsh self-denial, Viagra use. Rather, eating became relatively unimportant, and food fell into its rightful place: a means of sustenance to keep the body functioning, not a source of unending enjoyment. Most religions enjoin fasting, be it the Muslim sawm, or the Christian Lent, Viagra For Sale. In Jain, Viagra canada, mexico, india, Vaishnavite and other traditions, women keep regular fasts – a self-cleansing discipline, with physical and spiritual connotations.

Mahatma Gandhi’s numerous fasts, during the struggle for Indian independence, aimed at disciplining the self, and changing the hearts of the opponent – the spiritual dimension flowed into the political. Sharmila, order Viagra from mexican pharmacy, similarly, aims to change the hearts and minds of people, including those who wield power, radically altering their thinking and consciousness, which in turn would significantly transform their approach and policies. Comprar en línea Viagra, comprar Viagra baratos, By highlighting burning issues, she also seeks to build public opinion and solidarity.

A fast, like most nonviolent resistance, can be misconstrued as passive. People sometimes remark that rather than languishing in jail, she should give up her fast, come out and join the active struggle for change, Viagra class. Viagra For Sale, One recalls the Gandhian claim that nonviolence is an active force, not passive. Active even when we sleep, for it works through the human heart. It is the law of humanity, just as violence is the law of the brute. It is the weapon of the strong since it implies ethical choice, Viagra no rx, balanced against expediency. Practitioners of nonviolence could access other means, including brute force, yet they consciously reject the option. According to nonviolent practitioners like Sharmila, ignoble means cannot achieve noble ends.

Sharmila is a law-abiding citizen – as were Gandhi, Thoreau, Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks, Viagra For Sale. Reposing faith in democracy based on just laws, she is a practitioner of noncooperation and, indeed, purchase Viagra online, civil disobedience. While authorities treat her fast as an infringement of law, she perceives the AFSPA to be infringing a higher law. Thoreau advised people to disobey unjust laws. By so doing, Viagra cost, they would expose such laws to public scrutiny. Viagra For Sale, He saw principled resistance as a duty of the righteous citizen: “Under a government which imprisons any unjustly, the true place for a just man is also in prison.”

Aung San Suu Kyi speaks of the “supremacy of moral force over force based on the might of arms and empire.” Suffering under the military junta in Myanmar, she is the conscience of her nation, and an icon for democratic movements globally. Both Suu Kyi and Irom Sharmila are detained by their governments, and one or the other may die before victory is attained. Their strength lies in their fearlessness and untiring commitment, and the resonance and near-reverence this arouses in others. Governments dread them, for symbolising righteousness and moral power, Viagra from canadian pharmacy. They enjoy wide public sympathy, and remind us of our common humanity.

Irom Sharmila expresses dissent, and submits to the punishment meted out. State forces arrest her, but can not compel her to change her thinking, apologise or retreat, Viagra For Sale. In a way the jail hospital has become her monastery or ashram: a place to develop qualities of endurance, patience, Taking Viagra, fearlessness and confidence.

People want peace: the condition for leading normal lives. Peace necessarily involves a committed process of dialogue and negotiation, transparency and accountability, healing and reconciliation. In Manipur, militarisation is certainly not leading to peace.

After the unleashing of the AFSPA upon the people, insurgency has spiralled and spun out of control, purchase Viagra for sale. Insurgents and the militarist state are today hardened and distorted mirror images of each other. Viagra For Sale, Logically, violence can not show a way out of violence. State terrorism can not end non-state terrorism. The official counterinsurgency strategy has backfired. Yet, it continues – growing increasingly more repressive.

In 2008, Viagra price, coupon, the Manipuri state government began recruiting young civilians in Thoubal and Imphal West districts, arming them with a mandate to kill insurgents. There is no guarantee that these rag-tag vigilant squads will use the guns for righteous ends. Defence strategists and human rights advocates point out that arming civilians is bound to be self-defeating.

To end the conflict, the state must shift from military solutions to political engagement, and alter its basic approach to development, Viagra For Sale. Most people in Manipur today would strongly support an authentic peace process. Developmental activities ensuring food security, employment, healthcare, Viagra long term, educational inputs and agricultural revival are integral and essential to the process. The purpose of counterinsurgency program should be clear and visible: peace in the region, enabling pursuit of development in consonance with people’s needs and cultures.

Irom Sharmila, along with civil society groups and other individuals, is demanding not just an end to the AFSPA, Viagra schedule, but also a genuine response to people’s grievances, and an authentic process of development.

In December 2008, women from different parts of Manipur began a continuous relay hunger strike near the JN Hospital in Imphal – in solidarity with Sharmila – rallying around the slogan “Save Sharmila, repeal the AFSPA,” coordinated by Sharmila Kanba Lup (Save Sharmila Campaign). This October, the relay hunger strike ran into more than 300 days, where can i buy Viagra online. Viagra For Sale, This is, indeed, an amazing demonstration of public opinion – clearly articulated in united action – by thousands of peace-loving citizens.

The severity of the current crisis has forced civil society groups in other parts of India to express their solidarity with the Manipuri people. This August, outside the Manipur Bhawan (Manipur House) in New Delhi, civil society organisations rallied, demanding “an end to fake encounters and state sponsored killings.” In September, another protest outside the Bhawan demanded punishment of police personnel responsible for the extrajudicial execution of Chungkham Shanjit and Rabina Devi; repeal of the AFSPA; ending of the atmosphere of impunity that prevails in Manipur; and adoption of a democratic and political solution, Viagra pics, in resolving the crisis in Manipur.

In the face of growing protest, the Indian government is reacting by unleashing new forms of repression.

A new force, the Manipur Police Commando, has now been raised. The MPC shot into the limelight this July, after its personnel shot dead twenty-seven-year old Chungkham Sanjit, in a crowded marketplace in Imphal, where can i buy cheapest Viagra online. Caught in the crossfire, a pregnant woman – Thokchom Ongbi Rabina Devi – was killed, and seven others were injured.

In recent weeks, activists of All Manipur United Clubs Organisation and Apunba Lup as well as environmental activist Jiten Yumnam were arrested under various draconian acts like the National Security Act and the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act. Medical reports accessed by journalists indicate that Yumnam was subjected to torture in police custody.

Even one heinous crime, Effects of Viagra, committed by functionaries deployed by the state, needs to be scrupulously investigated subjected to due judicial processes, in a democracy. We have thousands of such cases of state-sponsored crimes in Manipur, without redress. For a government that grants impunity to its armed forces, activists campaigning for human rights and peace are surely considered as threat. Hence, the recent spate of arrests.

Meanwhile, physically isolated, Irom Sharmila’s spirit remains as strong as ever. Tucked away in a state geographically and culturally remote from the Indian capital, she nonetheless poses a powerful challenge to the impunity and high-handedness of state power.


Deepti Priya Mehrotra – activist and researcher – is the author of Burning Bright: Irom Sharmila and the struggle for peace in Manipur (Penguin India, 2009).

In print: Independent World Report -- Issue 2, November 2009.

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[caption id="attachment_265" align="alignnone" width="480" caption="Craig Murray: Adapted artwork by Sharmin Afsana."]Craig Murray: Adapted artwork by Sharmin Afsana.[/caption]

I Accutane For Sale, n 2002, Craig Murray, British ambassador to Uzbekistan, encountered something that he would describe as the real evil: the brutal campaign of torture and repression by the Islam Karimov regime. Later, in an interview with the Guardian, Murray described his encounters with victims of torture in Tashkent: “People come to me very often after being tortured. Normally this includes homosexual and heterosexual rape of close relatives in front of the victim; rape with objects such as broken bottles; asphyxiation; pulling out of fingernails; smashing of limbs with blunt objects; and use of boiling liquids including complete immersion of the body. This is not uncommon, Accutane mg. Thousands of people a year suffer from this torture at the hands of the authorities.”

The ambassador uncovered that the Uzbek government was using its torture program to manufacture disinformation about al-Qaeda and Islamist threats in Central Asia and passing them on to MI6 and the CIA. He also discovered the existence of an extraordinary rendition program through which the CIA was flying terror suspects in to Uzbekistan to be tortured, Accutane For Sale. As he started to report his findings to the FCO in London, he realised that his government was a partner in the torture and rendition arrangement. At one point, Buy Accutane online cod, when Murray was asked by his superiors to shut up and ignore the Uzbek torture game, he had two choices before him: to continue playing the role of a diplomat in Her Majesty’s diplomatic service, or, to be the ambassador of his own conscience.

The conscientious decision Murray took cost him his job in 2004 and made him one of the first whistleblowers on torture and extraordinary rendition in the War on Terror. Since then, he is an outspoken critic of the War on Terror, australia, uk, us, usa, as a human rights activist, writer and blogger.

Shafiur Rahman interviewed Craig Murray.


In recent months the British government has been facing embarrassing questions about the UK’s complicity in torture and renditions. There are calls for an independent enquiry into recent allegations of torture of British citizens in countries such as Pakistan and Morocco. Accutane For Sale, Do you think things are finally coming to the surface, do you feel vindicated?

I think 99% of informed society are now quite certain that the government was receiving intelligence from torture. They [the government] have almost stopped denying, Accutane no prescription, but, still claiming that does not amount to complicity. In what sense that does not amount to complicity is not clear.

It is very similar to the law on child pornography in this country – if you download child pornography, you are guilty even if you had nothing to do with creating the pornography, because, the law takes the view that by downloading it you are creating a market and causing the pornography to happen, Accutane price. I think the same is true for torture material: if you are accepting and using torture material, you are creating a market for that torture material and you are causing the torture to happen.

That the government is hanging onto this claim of not being complicit, while no longer really denying they got intelligence from torture, is an advance. Accutane class, I think people forget when I was having my big argument with the government in 2003-2004, I was saying: we are getting intelligence from torture, from terrible torture and we are complicit in it. I was saying: the Americans are flying people in to Uzbekistan, and the government said I was lying quite flatly.

At that stage, people did not fully realise that the government lies and lies very easily nowadays, Accutane For Sale. When the government said it was me who was not telling the truth, a lot of people believed the government. My position in society, Accutane pharmacy, if you like, was really quite difficult. I was going about under this cloud of being stigmatised as a liar.

For me, personally, Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, things are much better because I no longer meet anybody who does not believe me [laughs]. People do accept what I was saying was true and that I was one of the very first people to blow the whistle on torture and extraordinary rendition in the War on Terror.

The government refuses to accept complicity because it is a legal term with legal force in international and domestic law. They are concerned about the possible legal consequences.

Accutane For Sale, My concern is that we do not end up with the Abu Ghraib situation. The lady Brigadier General Janis Karpinski, who commanded Abu Ghraib, has told me – one to one – that she personally saw a memo signed by Donald Rumsfeld outlining those interrogation techniques. Yet, get Accutane, the only people who went to jail were privates and corporals.

I am scared that is what we are going to see in the UK, that a few very junior MI5 and MI6 people will go to prison for six months and the government will say, “It was out of control individuals at the very bottom.” And the people who are really guilty – Jack Straw, Tony Blair, Buy Accutane without a prescription, David Blunkett – will get off completely free, [despite the fact] that the complicity came from the top not from the bottom.

You mentioned Tony Blair. I have been reading John Kampfner’s book – Blair's Wars – where he says that Blair was always inconsistent in terms of human rights, torture and so on. But, after 9/11, Accutane duration, he just took the US mantra and wore it. What are your thoughts on that, and, how did Blair approach things in Uzbekistan and Central Asia?

When Blair started using phrases like “the gloves are off and the rules have changed,” that was a pretty definite signal that we were going to start doing things which are illegal, Accutane For Sale. I do not think that we had fully appreciated the extent to which Blair was motivated by his religious belief and saw this as a religious crusade for Christianity against Islam.

It is an interesting thing if you look at opinion polls in the US nowadays. They show that just over 50% – 52%-54% – of people in the US are in favour of the use of torture in the War on Terror. 30%-40% of people are consistently against it with the rest being don’t know. Accutane for sale, But, if we break down the poll sample – the churchgoers in the US are consistently 80%-90% in support of torture [laughs].

To a British person that is anachronistic, makes no sense at all, in that you would expect the opposite to be true. Accutane For Sale, I think the affect of that kind of aggressive, evangelical, pro-Zionist, happy-clappy religion in the US is quite extreme on people’s opinion. I think Blair is very influenced by that and that has a large part of it.

In Central Asia in particular, Blair had no interest, buy Accutane without prescription. He never went there, he never commented on any Central Asia policy that I ever saw. He viewed Central Asia as an American sphere of influence. When I went to Uzbekistan, Accutane from canadian pharmacy, I was told that my first and foremost task was to support the American ambassador. So, Central Asia was viewed by the UK and by Blair as a US sphere of influence where our role was simply to support the US.

Now, I understand there was a time when the human rights question was a big part of British-European-American foreign policy, Accutane For Sale. How do you see the Central Asia policy emerging in recent years?

Yeah, throughout the 1990s, the UK and the US had foreign policies in which human rights was an important factor, genuinely. The argument in internal policy discussion of the human rights implication of a case was given more weight within Whitehall and the State Department, fast shipping Accutane. That, in a way, culminated in Robin Cook’s declaration of an ethical foreign policy. The important thing to remember is that within the establishments, Cheap Accutane no rx, bureaucracies and political classes there had always been opposition to the growth of the importance of human rights. Accutane For Sale, People who felt a Machiavellian, purely self-interest driven foreign policy was the natural state of affairs.

The American policy on Central Asia throughout the 1990s – the Clinton administration – quite correctly saw the Central Asian states as simply a continuation of the leadership of Soviet elites. There were condemnatory statements by Madeleine Albright and James Rubin, for example – outspoken human rights statements condemning the Uzbek government, the Turkmen government.

Things changed radically when Bush came in. American policy was already very much focused on oil and gas. The Unocal project did not start with the Bush administration – it had been going on under Clinton, Accutane dangers. But it was always a Republican-driven thing, George Bush senior was on the board of Unocal and it got a new lease of life.

Between Bush coming to power and 9/11 you can not find any condemnatory statement about human rights and Uzbekistan. The change in American foreign policy came when Bush came, the Bush family had interests in trying to get at Central Asian oil and gas, Accutane For Sale. That fundamental switch of policy was a switch from Democrat to Republican which had already happened before 9/11.

9/11 then gave an excuse for massive military support and security service support for the Karimov regime. The fundamental motive was always Central Asian oil and gas. Where can i order Accutane without prescription, It was nothing to do with genuine security fears about Islam and Central Asia. Those fears had to be manufactured, because, the militant Islamic threat to Uzbekistan and to other Central Asian states – with the possible exception of Tajikistan – is much more imagined than it is real. Accutane For Sale, At the same time, there was supposed to be a continued human rights agenda. Even Bush never officially tore up the human rights agenda.

The way they got around that was by this extraordinary pretence: the US and EU ambassadors produced series of reports on how the human rights situation in Uzbekistan was getting better. I used to go to surreal meetings with other ambassadors where there were talks about how the economy was getting better, no prescription Accutane online, there were less political prisoners and censorship had ended. All of which was totally untrue, it was Mickey Mouse stuff, it was fantasy. Accutane australia, uk, us, usa, But, because they knew that was the narrative, that was how they squared it, by pretending the situation was getting better.

After what happened in Andijan – possibly a thousand pro-democracy demonstrators massacred – it became impossible to pretend any longer that the human rights situation was getting better.

Where do you see Russia and China in the game?

[For] Putin, the number one priority in the world was to reestablish Russian influence over the old Soviet Union. It is worth remembering that the Americans – the Republicans – were cock-a-hoop about getting their big airbase in Tashkent, Accutane For Sale. Because Tashkent was not nowhere, Accutane price, coupon, Tashkent was the fourth biggest city in the old Soviet Union.

I do not know what the fourth biggest city in the US is, but it would be like, the Russians getting an airbase in Detroit. So for the Americans that was a huge achievement, Accutane used for, and, they were building a $120 million embassy in Tashkent which was going to house 400 diplomats. They were really planning to bring Uzbekistan into their sphere of influence, to have a neocolonial relationship with Uzbekistan in the heart of the old Soviet Union.

Of course, Putin and the new nationalism in Russia was furious about it. So, Accutane online cod, Putin set out to undermine it, and, Putin not being stupid realised that the way to do that was through Gazprom. Accutane For Sale, Every Central Asian state now has gas supply contracts with Gazprom, which effectively give Gazprom a monopoly.

Kazakhstan is the only state which has been large enough and where the oil and gas industry was developed enough that it has managed to maintain a balanced policy between east and west. Because [president of Kazakhstan] Nazarbayev is no democrat but he is a very shrewd, Where to buy Accutane, clever operator.

In all the other states – including those that do not have much oil and gas – Gazprom has been used effectively as a tool to buy out the leaderships. In Uzbekistan’s case it was a payment of, I think, $82 million from Gazprom to Gulnora Karimova [daughter of the Uzbek president], direct. In return for which the Americans were kicked out of their airbase.

China is a growing economic power, Accutane pictures. China is the natural market for the oil and gas from Central Asia because it has a huge energy deficiency and a quickly growing economy. Certainly from Kazakhstan it will be getting oil and gas, Accutane For Sale. China is not trying aggressively to increase its presence in Central Asia, in the way it is trying in Africa. In Africa, About Accutane, China is building sports stadiums, building dams – all kind of things, putting in, what for Africa is a lot of money.

Here in the West we do not think much about Central Asia at all. But, China and Russia are both colonial powers in Central Asia, buy generic Accutane. The old Soviet Union was just a renaming of the old Russian empire and many of its practices continued the same. Accutane For Sale, China is an empire, the Han Chinese are a small, centred part of the population.

Living in the UK, because of our own history – because we were an island and when we acquired an empire we had to do it by sending ships – we only think somewhere is an empire if you have sea between the bits of it. In fact you can have a contiguous land country that is still an empire where you have a definite mother country and then other bits which are satellites. They happen to have been able to be conquered on land without going overseas.

The Russian empire was and is an empire. What happened was that the great swathe of Islamic civilisation in Central Asia and Eastern Europe extending all the way to China, Purchase Accutane online, weakened historically. And, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was overrun by Russia and by China.

So you have all these Muslim people from Dagestan, Tatarstan, Chechnya through to those who have achieved independence because they were acknowledged as separate republics within the USSR: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, doses Accutane work, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan. Then, through to the Uyghurs and other Muslim populations in the west of the Chinese empire, Accutane For Sale. These are all colonial peoples.

So you had imperial control over all these countries, then of course those which have escaped from formal imperial control. Buy Accutane online no prescription, All of them are still under control of colonial elites. The people who were trained by the Soviets in the Soviet way: like Karimov – is very, very typical.

Karimov was brought up in a Soviet orphanage – as so many of the communist leaders were – completely indoctrinated and brought up to be a Soviet apparatchik and still is a Soviet apparatchik. He never knew anything else, he never will and he will die a Soviet apparatchik.

So, you have this whole swathe covering 3, order Accutane online c.o.d,000-4,000 contiguous land miles of indigenous Muslim populations which were conquered colonially by Russia or by China. Accutane For Sale, To the South you have Muslim populations which were conquered by the British, but, which have achieved independence of a kind. The extraordinary thing is it does not really make much difference, those which have escaped have not really escaped.

It does mean that China and Russia have this tremendous joint interest in keeping the lid on those colonial peoples. Accutane alternatives, Because what many people call Islamic resurgence I think in most cases is an anti-colonial movement.

Where do you see the European Union?

I think the EU position is fascinating, because, the EU position is very weak. It is the EU again trying to square the circle – just the way the Americans were five or six years ago – by pretending that the Karimov regime is reforming. Therefore, getting out of the dilemma of what you do about it by accepting Uzbek government assurances of change.

The reason for that is that the EU position is entirely influenced by France and Germany’s dependence on Gazprom for their energy supplies, buy Accutane from canada. Germany within ten years will get 60%-70% of its electricity from Russian gas, from Gazprom gas, Accutane For Sale. Some of which will come from Central Asia.

France, even with its giant nuclear programme, is getting about a third of its electricity from Russian gas. So, Discount Accutane, I do not think you will see the EU in any sense trying to diminish or compete with Russian influence in Central Asia. The EU accepts Central Asia as part of the Russian sphere of influence because it can not anger Russia, because of the increasing dependence on energy.

I think it is a very bad thing because I have a very jaded view of Russia. I think the militant nationalism and authoritarianism of Putin is a very bad thing. Accutane For Sale, At the same time, the EU does try to alter that position by putting itself into a position to access Central Asian gas directly. That is where the Nabucco pipeline projects had become important.

But, the Nabucco pipeline project is stymied by Azerbaijan in effect, purchase Accutane for sale. Because a large part of the Russia-Georgia conflict was Russia’s desire to seal off the pipeline right through Abkhazia. Anyway, to get there it still has to go through Azerbaijan and that is completely impossible. Azerbaijan is absolutely under Russian control. The father of the president of Azerbaijan used to be Putin’s boss in the KGB and there, I think, Russia has just got too tight a grip.

But, the Georgia War was over the pipeline again, Accutane For Sale. Is Accutane addictive, Almost all recent conflicts sadly come down to control of hydrocarbon supplies.

Very final question Craig, and, this is at a personal level. I am sure you have been asked this many times. You were trained as a diplomat: diplomats compromise, diplomats understand their situation, Accutane interactions. Diplomats do not do what you did. Can you again tell me why you did it?

Accutane For Sale, I think, some things are just so awful that you can not go along with them.

…you had not come across it before?

Not of that kind and intensity. I had been in the Niger delta, seen what was done to the people there by Shell. I had done what I could to help mitigate some of those bad things. Buy cheap Accutane, But, this was of a different order.

This was really like being in Hitler’s Berlin in the 1930s. I have actually seen, in the foreign office library, photos of British diplomats in 1938 in long white trousers – in the days when they used to play tennis in long white trousers – playing tennis with Goering and Goebbels and whatever, at German diplomatic functions, Accutane forum. I do not know, it is just not for me.

It seems, some things are so extreme that there is such a thing as real evil, Accutane For Sale. When you encounter it, then, you have to do whatever little bit is in your power to do. I should say that when I started, Buy Accutane without a prescription, I did believe – perhaps naively – that the British government would back me, when they realised the full horror of what was happening in Uzbekistan.

I expected I would get more support from them than I did. I certainly did not think they would stab me in the back and try to set me up in the way they did. I felt like I could almost shame them into supporting me. I was wrong.

Accutane For Sale, Could I just do what other diplomats did and stay within the confines of diplomatic life – the embassy, the Intercontinental hotel, coffee parties, cocktail parties and dinners – and pretend it all was not happening, and, just take the money. No, I could not.

What I find really scary to this day and I still do not understand and I have never come to terms with it, is I did not think I was unusual. I really did not. I felt that everyone would feel like the way I did about that kind of thing. But, of course it is not true, is it?

You do realise, then, that the people, the tens of thousands of people (we like to pretend it was a few people at the top, it was not), the hundreds of thousands of people that ran the concentration camp system in Germany were just normal people, absolutely ordinary people.

The vast majority of people, if they were told, “Your job this morning is to shovel these Jews into this concentration camp,” there are almost no stories of German soldiers who refused to do it and were shot instead. People do what they are told by governments in order to keep their jobs, to keep their families, to keep their lives or whatever. And the whole world is a much less moral place than I guess I thought it was and it is difficult to come to terms with that [laughs].


Shafiur Rahman is a documentary filmmaker.

In print: Independent World Report -- Issue 1, September 2009..

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